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Many diabetes mellitus type 2 lipid profile cheap acarbose 50 mg mastercard, but not all diabetic chart buy cheap acarbose on-line, consequences of a catastrophic event are predictable type 2 diabetes definition who purchase discount acarbose on line, and many catastrophic events share common types of consequences blood glucose 300 treatment order 50mg acarbose with mastercard. It must be adaptable to variable outcomes of varying magnitude and potential cascading effects of catastrophic events that may require a rapid transition from the initial plan to a more comprehensive one. Constructing an effective consequence management plan starts with understanding the threats to a populace, geographic location, or specific entity and the potential impact of those threats on all facets of the affected area. It must identify local response capabilities and functions and develop an activation strategy for timely implementation. It should also demonstrate an understanding of regional, state, and federal response capabilities and functions and outline a mechanism for requesting assistance. Effective consequence management starts at the local level, but can rapidly escalate with the need to coordinate higher-level supportive response with ongoing local response and recovery efforts. They identify essential support functions and recovery support functions that guide local, state, and interagency federal all-hazards planning for response and recovery. These documents emphasize a common theme: response and recovery will start at the local level and local involvement throughout is critical to success. At one time a clear separation existed between crisis management and consequence management. In a November 20, 2003 hearing before the House of Representatives, Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security, Mr. Howard Coble defined crisis management as actions taken to anticipate, prevent, or resolve a threat, with consequence management fulfilling the cleanup and restoration functions after an attack. However, immediate response efforts can mitigate long-term 94 effects and the overall impact of the disaster with significant impact on postdisaster recovery-positively or negatively-and the two should be planned and executed in harmony. Planners, regardless of their affiliation, must understand what threats have the greatest potential impact on their area of responsibility. Threat and hazard identification and Consequence Management: the Local and National Response risk assessment guidance is provided in the Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 201. Core components of risk management are conducting a hazard analysis based on source, mechanism, and outcome of each hazard; an assessment of risk based on the probability the hazard will be experienced; and the severity of the outcome, followed by development of a strategy to mitigate risk that focuses on lowering the probability or lessening the severity resulting in an acceptable level of residual risk. Risk assessment must be continuous and updated throughout the course of a response to hazardous conditions, and it must be specific to the environment, local infrastructure, and population. Severity of outcomes will likely vary significantly between heavily populated areas and sparsely populated areas and could vary considerably within the same city depending on what part of the city is affected, time of day, or whether the incident occurs during a workweek, weekend, or special event. These systems can assist planners with selecting controls to mitigate outcomes, inform predisaster resourcing to enhance preparedness (eg, establishment of memoranda of agreement), decrease the residual risk, and assist with comprehensive consequence management planning. Some aspects of consequence management following exposure to a biological agent that causes contagious disease could significantly differ from one that is not. An overreaction for a disease-causing agent that is not contagious could cause unnecessary negative impact to the local infrastructure and economy and further complicate long-term recovery. Conversely, a lack of planning or inability to control the spread of a contagious disease could result in uncontrolled spread beyond the contamination zone with severe to catastrophic impact on life, health, infrastructure, and economy over a broad geographic region. A contagion will likely require implementation of quarantine and/ or isolation as a control measure, but quarantine and/ or isolation may not be appropriate for an agent that does not cause a contagious disease. When local planners do not have subject matter experts available to assist with planning, they should seek assistance from county, state, and federal public health professionals. The general population does not understand the unique differences among the various potential pathogens, their mechanisms of transmission, and the differences in risk created by each. Misinformation disseminated through rumors or poorly informed news outlets can create additional challenges to the response and recovery effort. It can lead to confusion as well as a loss of confidence in those leading the response and recovery effort. Timely accurate information dissemination to the community is important, whenever a threat to public safety occurs. An analysis of the human response to the catastrophic events of September 11, 2001 reveals that fear during a crisis situation does not automatically result in panic, and the negative impact of fear may manifest more significantly during the consequence management period when considerable uncertainty exists. Timely release of accurate information can mitigate the effects of misinformation and facilitate a spirit of teamwork throughout response and recovery. Close coordination of press releases with public affairs professionals is critical to accurate information dissemination. Similarly, the magnitude of impact from a naturally occurring outbreak of infectious disease can be minimized or magnified by the quality of response planning and efficiency of execution. Selecting the appropriate medical countermeasures and understanding the potential effects will rely on accurate agent identification at the time of the incident, but detailed planning for specified agents would be an inefficient approach to general consequence manage95 Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare ment and would risk not having an actionable plan in place when needed.
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None of the specifications estimated by the Lewit study found a significant impact of the campaign on the number of cigarettes smoked per day brewers yeast and diabetes in dogs cheap acarbose 25 mg. This finding is not surprising diabetes medications and alcohol consumption purchase acarbose online, as many youth are not yet regular or addicted smokers diabetes insipidus long term effects 50 mg acarbose. Lewit and colleagues106 made significant improvements in estimating the effects of Fairness Doctrine antismoking commercials diabetes mellitus type 2 ketoacidosis safe acarbose 50 mg. They did so by estimating youth smoking behaviors as a function of proxies for exposure to the antismoking campaign while controlling for a broad set of potentially confounding influences. This study made significant strides in using more complex measures of exposure to the campaign. As in other studies that rely on aggregate rather than self-reported individual exposure, the measures were of potential rather than actual exposure. Despite their limitations, these crosssectional studies provided fairly convincing evidence of the impact of the Fairness Doctrine and were consistent with previous time-series analyses of cigarette sales and consumption data. Thus, the Fairness Doctrine advertisements appeared to be more effective in deterring cigarette consumption than were the cigarette commercials in encouraging consumption, Monograph 19. The Fairness Doctrine and ensuing evaluations showed that antismoking advertising on television and radio, when implemented with sufficient intensity and reach, could produce behavioral changes in smoking. As such, these studies laid groundwork for further investigation and eventually for antismoking media campaigns to become one of the preeminent tools used by governments and private health organizations for curbing youth and adult smoking in the United States. Specific changes between surveys-in unprompted awareness of health effects caused by smoking, and new learning about smoking and health-were observed in relation to the main messages of the advertisements, which were time sensitive, according to the year of launch of each of the ads. White and colleagues108 used two crosssectional surveys of youth (one telephone and one school based; both postintervention only) to examine youth awareness of the "every cigarette is doing you damage" campaign and whether the campaign had any measurable impact on tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors among youth. The telephone survey assessed youth awareness of campaign messages, attitudes about smoking, intentions to smoke, and quitting behaviors. The school survey also assessed youth awareness of campaign messages and whether the students took any actions as a result of seeing the campaign advertisements. Again, the primary analytic strategy of White and colleagues108 consisted of simple descriptive analyses rather than multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors. Analyses were conducted separately for smokers and nonsmokers and summarized youth awareness of the campaign and responses to various questions about tobacco-related attitudes and quitting behaviors. Analyses from the telephone survey indicate that a high proportion of smoking and nonsmoking youth agreed with statements about campaign-related beliefs. A high proportion of youth also indicated beliefs that the campaign was relevant to primary students, secondary students, and young smokers. Students in the Victoria school survey were asked questions about whether they took any action in response to the campaign. Students were allowed to indicate any one of a number of possible actions, such as quitting smoking, reducing their cigarette 519 12. Effectiveness of Media in Discouraging Smoking Behavior consumption, and telling someone else to quit smoking. Compared with never smokers, a significantly higher proportion of youth who had smoked at least once in their lifetime indicated taking at least one action in response to the campaign. Among current established smokers, for example, 27% said they cut down the number of cigarettes they smoked in response to the campaign, 26% indicated they thought about quitting, and 18% said the campaign made them try to quit smoking. When launched in 2000, the "truth" campaign differed from other national smoking prevention campaigns in being marketed as a popular youth brand and delivering blunt facts and messages about the tobacco industry (such as industry efforts to obscure the health effects of tobacco). The Legacy "truth" campaign strategy is generally consistent with modern theories 520 of persuasion. These theories hold that, for a message to have an effect on desired outcomes, it must not only be viewed and remembered but also must be understood and perceived as credible and relevant. The first cross-sectional studies on the effectiveness of the Legacy "truth" campaign provide fairly convincing evidence that the campaign had a significant impact on tobacco industry-related attitudes, beliefs, and other behavioral precursors, as well as a significant impact on youth smoking prevalence in the United States.
Measure design is followed by item generation diabetes mellitus glucose levels purchase acarbose master card, a stage where redundancy is a virtue and the actual effects of minor wording differences are put to diabetes mellitus type 2 guidelines discount 25mg acarbose with amex empirical test diabete 97 discount 50 mg acarbose with mastercard. Such procedures include asking experts to diabetes mellitus patient handout cheap 50mg acarbose otc generate items, and asking experts or respondents to evaluate items in the degree to which they capture defined constructs (Haynes, Richard, & Kubany, 1995). In place of measure design and item generation, designing manipulations involves developing the experimental task. Manipulations can range from artificial scenarios to lab studies involving confederates and role-playing to actual interventions in field research. For example, in a study on consumer disclosure in marketing relationships (White, 2004), scenarios about a fictitious service were used to manipulate deep versus shallow relationships; for instance, the deep relationship was manipulated by asking respondents to imagine that they had an ongoing relationship and by describing some characteristics of the service provider. In contrast, a field experiment can be designed where prespecified scenarios are enacted by service providers. Procedures for assessing content validity of measures can be applied for assessing manipulations during their development, including evaluation by experts. A variety of approaches to manipulating a construct need to be considered before deciding on a subset. For example, in manipulating arousal, a number of approaches (akin to measure design) need to be considered, such as manipulation through physical exercise or through music. Though it may not be practical to test each and every possible approach, different approaches should be considered in light of the literature to decide on an existing approach or design a new one. The point to note here is that an approach cannot be taken to be valid because of its use in past research just as the psychometric properties of a measure from past research should be assessed when using it. In fact, this point applies to a greater degree to manipulations than to measures, because measures are more likely to have been developed and validated for use in different situations or across different samples. Once an approach has been chosen, an often under-appreciated aspect is the need to assess a number of stimuli as well as variations in the experimental task. Manipulations are not administered in isolation but in the larger context of a cover story and experimental instructions as well as specific stimuli. Important here in preparing materials for pretesting, which is akin to item generation, is the need to start with a sizable, even a redundant set of stimuli to test. For example, Escalas, Moore, and Britton, (2004) used 10 stimulus ads in a study of responses to ads that were based on ratings of a larger set of 38 television ads by independent coders on attributes such as quality. A key issue here is the need for the manipulation to work in light of various methodological choices. Also akin to item editing is the need to examine and redesign manipulations before the fact that appear to capture related constructs, or that confound multiple constructs between levels of the manipulation. For instance, when using manipulations involving detailed scenarios, it is important to manipulate only the construct under study and not other constructs. In a sense, measure development is generic in that a measure is expected to be used in a variety of settings across different samples, whereas a manipulation tends to be designed relatively idiosyncratic to a study. While recognizing the differences between relatively generic measures and relatively idiosyncratic manipulations, the point here is that there is much to be learnt from generic measurement for designing manipulations. Assessment of Reliability and Validity Measures are assessed for reliability and validity. Measures relatively free of random error are considered reliable (Nunnally, 1978). Whether a measure is accurate or not is the realm of validity, the degree to which a measure is free of random and systematic error (Nunnally, 1978). Random error may reduce correlations between a measure and other variables, whereas systematic error may increase or reduce correlations between two variables. Types of reliability include internal consistency reliability and stability reliability; internal consistency assesses whether items within a set are consistent with each other, that is, covary with each other; stability reliability relates to whether consistent responses would be obtained for the same measure across time. Types of validity include content validity discussed earlier, convergent validity (does the measure correlate or converge with another measure of the same construct Valid manipulations manipulate the intended construct and do not manipulate other constructs. As discussed, convergence between a manipulation of a variable and its measurement is examined through a manipulation check and divergence between a manipulation and measures of variables that it is not supposed to manipulate is assessed through confounding checks (Figure 45. For example, the manipulation of, say, argument strength should not lead to a manipulation of distinctly different constructs, say, amount of information presented. A study of humor in ads (Krishnan & Chakravarti, 2003) used product categories relevant to students and fictitious brand names chosen from a standardized word list that were similar on characteristics such as memorability.
Undefined Theory/ Research Development Narrow N Y Y Y Y Y Various Measures Mentioned Undefined Theory/ Research Development Comprehensive N N Y Y N Y Various Measures Mentioned Tripartite Taxonomy of Character Character School Age education/devel Park diabetes mellitus ati effective 25mg acarbose, D diabetes symptoms uk type 2 order 25 mg acarbose visa. A opment tripartite taxonomy of character: Evidence for intrapersonal diabetes symptoms new zealand purchase acarbose us, interpersonal diabetes beginning signs acarbose 50 mg otc, and intellectual competencies in children. What Works in Character Education Character Undefined education/devel Berkowitz, M. Smart opment and good high schools: Integrating excellence and ethics for success in school, work, and beyond. An integrated conceptual framework for developmental research on of Asian American children and youth. Quebec: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development and the Strategic Knowledge Cluster on Early Child Development. Model of Sociocultural Development of African American Children Culture, schoolbased competency development Narrow N Y Y Y Y Y Various measures mentioned children and adolescents Theory/ Research Development Comprehensive N Y Y N N N children, Theory/ youth, Research students Development mentioned most; refers to all ages Narrow N Y Y Y N N none reported Culture, resilience Children, Adolescent Theory/ Research Development Comprehensive N Y Y Y N N American Institutes for Research Identifying, Defining, and Measuring Social and Emotional Competencies-105 Barbarin, O. An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. An Examination of Social and Emotional Behavior Skills with American Indian Elementary Students: Issues of Measurement, Gender, Grade, and Culture. American Institutes for Research School Age Students Applied Practice Comprehensive N Y Y N Y N Identifying, Defining, and Measuring Social and Emotional Competencies-106 Retrieved from. Transversal competencies in education policy and American Institutes for Research School-based competency development, social and emotional learning Transition Applied from Youth to Practice Adulthood Comprehensive N N N N N N Undefined Theory/ Research Development Narrow N Y Y N Y N Undefined Applied Practice Narrow N Y N N N N Undefined Standard/Comp Narrow etencies Identification N Y Y N Y Y Measures listed in tables by construct and study School-based competency development School Age Students Standard/ Comprehensive Competencies Identification N N Y Y Y N Identifying, Defining, and Measuring Social and Emotional Competencies-107 practice. Education for life and work: Developing transferable knowledge and skills in the 21st century. Board on Testing and Assessment, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences School-based competency development, measurement students, college students Theory/ Research Development Comprehensive N Y Y N Y Academic Tenacity School-based Dweck, C. Academic tenacity: Mindsets and development skills that promote long-term learning. The New York State interpersonal violence prevention resource guide: Stopping youth violence before it begins. Undefined Standards/ Comprehensive Competencies Identification N Y Y N Y N School-based Early competency Childhood development, early childhood Applied Practice Narrow N Y Y Y Y Y Various Measures A Skill-Based Model of Emotional School-based Competence: A Developmental Perspective competency development Saarni, C. Beyond Academics: A Holistic Framework for Enhancing Education and Workplace Success. Retrieved from American Institutes for Research Comprehensive N Y Y N Y Y the Family Pack of Questionnaires and Scales; Home Inventory Identifying, Defining, and Measuring Social and Emotional Competencies-115 webarchive. The Missouri model: Reinventing the practice of rehabilitating youthful offenders. Investing to improve the well-being of vulnerable youth and young adults: Recommendations for policy and practice. Systemic self-regulation: A framework for traumainformed services in residential juvenile justice programs. American Indian Life Skills (formerly Zuni Culture, life Life Skills Development) skills/violence LaFromboise, T. Native American children and youth well-being indicators: A strengths perspective. Social-emotional needs of Latino immigrant Mental health adolescents: A sociocultural model for development and implementation of culturally specific interventions. Social-emotional needs of Latino immigrant adolescents: A sociocultural model for development and implementation of culturally specific American Institutes for Research School Age Applied Practice Narrow N N Y N Y Applied Practice Narrow N N Y N Y children and youth standards/ competencies identification Narrow N Y Y N Y Adolescents theory/ research development Narrow N Y Y N Y Identifying, Defining, and Measuring Social and Emotional Competencies-117 Not Determined* N Y American Indian Life Skills Outcome Survey Y Various Measures N Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 2. Using a developmental framework to guide Mental health prevention and promotion Masten, A. The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments: Lessons from research on successful children. Mental health early adolescence Theory/ Research development Comprehensive N Y Y N Y N none reported Theory/ Research Development Comprehensive N Y N Y Y Y Various Measures Mentioned Mindfulness Undefined Theory/ Research Development Narrow N Y Y N Y Y Various Measures Mentioned Mindfulness: A Proposed Operational Mindfulness Definition Bishop, S. Ways of Being: A Model for Social & Emotional Learning American Institutes for Research Mindfulness Undefined Theory/ Research Development Narrow N Y Y N Y N School Age Theory/ Research Development Narrow N N Y N Y Y Self-Compassion Scale Positive youth development, social and young people, theory/ youth research development Comprehensive N N N N N N Identifying, Defining, and Measuring Social and Emotional Competencies-118 Blyth, D.
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