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Wood and Eagly found that there is variation in the roles males and females play across societies blood sugar solution 10 day detox diet purchase avapro with amex, with high degrees of overlap in many areas diabetes 66 reverse order avapro online from canada, but greater differences being found in aspects of those societies that deal directly with size and strength (such as large-game hunting with spears) or giving birth and taking care of young children blood glucose numbers after eating cheap 300 mg avapro with amex, and that other patterns become associated or emerge from diabetic watch discount avapro online, these differences. They suggest that much of the current social division of labor we associate with gender emerges from both the biological facets of being human and human evolutionary histories combined with our histories of resource use and distribution. Are there broad-scale social patterns that reflect gender differences (or cause or reinforce them) As adults we see a wide variety of societal differences between males and females that are not directly tied to interpersonal behavior patterns, but rather to the ways in which societies structure themselves and are governed. These patterns can act to create and maintain differences between males and females, because in each case males tend to have higher access and control over these categories. The differences are in areas such as social and political power, economic power, educational status, and health, as reported in the Global Gender Gap Report 2010, which tracks progress over five-year spans: "On average, over 96% of the gap on health outcomes, 93% of the gap on educational attainment, 59% of the gap on economic participation and 18% of the gap on political empowerment have been closed. There is a gender gap in economic and political power that constructs and helps maintain gender roles and inequality. The World Economic Forum is an agency in Switzerland that collaborates with researchers at 184 Busting Three Myths about Being Human the University of California, Berkeley, and Harvard University to assess the division of, and access to , resources between males and females in 134 countries. Controlling resources (political and economic) enables the control of most major aspects of our social lives. In 2010, the United States moved to 19th place (up from 31st in 2009), with an overall gap index of 74 percent (Iceland was number 1 with a gap index score of 85 percent and Yemen was number 134 with a score of 46 percent). This overall score for the United States reflects the percentage attainment by females relative to males in the areas of interest. However, larger differences still remain in earned income and wage inequality (the United States is 64th in this measure) and political empowerment (the United States is 40th here). There are no patterns of biological or behavioral differences between males and females that make males run companies or societies better. These are aspects of societal structures that act to maintain broadly held ideas about gender. When children grow up within a society, they acquire the templates that are around them and these help create their schemata. These contexts set the stage for our biosocial development, resulting in what we experience on a day-today basis. There is no evidence that most gender behavior and the gender gap reflect evolved patterns Males and females have important biological differences and important gender differences, but they have even more similarities. It makes sense that these similarities are due to our evolutionary history as humans. Both in biology and in behavior and potential the differences are smaller than we generally think they are, and only a few can clearly be linked to aspects of our evolutionary past. Women also use physical aggression, at even higher rates than men, at least within couples. Male size and muscle mass are part of our evolutionary heritage, but this pattern did not evolve so that males could beat up or intimidate females. In social structures where males have political and economic power they can also exploit this physical difference to help maintain these patterns of control. Do they use it more because they are on average smaller than males (but then why do females in couples use physical aggression) Or is this a reflection, like their greater use of smiling and agreeableness, of gendered expectations of behavior It appears that rather than being clearly evolutionarily linked, many of the actual differences appear to emerge from the structures and expectations of the gender systems in which they occur. Rather than hanging our hat on a few biological differences and trying to use them to explain gender differences we should be paying attention to what actual gender differences in behavior and potential are and seeing how they relate to our biology and our societies. At the same time we need to realize how much overlap there is across the genders and how variable individuals are in the ways in which they embody and experience gender patterns. Of course some evolutionary patterns have led to gender differences, but very few. Societies do incorporate biological patterns into gender roles, but we cannot look to our evolutionary history to explain the gender gap or most of the general expectations of gender behavior we rely on every day in our society. Gender behavior is best seen as the result of biosocial development: culture matters, gender counts, and we are simply not as different as we think. Given what we know about male and female behavior and potential the myth that the genders differ dramatically in behavior and potential and that the majority of the behavioral differences that do occur between males and females are evolutionarily hard-wired is busted. Romantic love, the elation and obsessive thinking that is produced when you first fall in love, focuses our mating energy on just one individual.


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Portugal for instance is at the brink of a political breakdown and riots in the streets are not far away diabetes mellitus zunge discount avapro online amex. His visit was 161 reported in the large Swedish daily Expressen only on their website on 23 August 2003 blood sugar solution book 300mg avapro. But what else can one expect from a currency symbolized by a stylised sign of Satan In the 1970s the total value of the world trade of industrial goods was 50 per cent signs up diabetes order avapro 300mg visa, the rest was in stocks and shares diabetes insipidus kind 300mg avapro with visa. The year 2001 the relation was 1 per cent goods and 99 per cent trading with securities. The current monetary system encourages fraud and extension of the grey economy and has led to that those who constantly are in need of money lose more and more to those who have far more than they need. More and more money is collected in the hands of certain individuals, who happen to be masonic bankers. If interest is abolished, everyone benefits from the new system, not only the 80 per cent considered poor. Alfred Herrhausen, member of the board of Deutsche Bank, has pointed out: "Those responsible for the current monetary system, know very well that it cannot last, but they do not know any alternative or do not want to know of any. Through taxes and duty the government collects most of the result of the economic activities of the people. Elie Wiesel wrote in his book "Legends of Our Time" as follows: "Some events take place but are not true. Disraeli admitted in the same novel that Rothschild financed the revolutions in France the year 1789, 1830, and 1848. At the Soviet Communist Party Congress in 1979 Professor Valeri Yemelyanov stated that "the Jewish freemasons pyramid controls 80 per cent of the economy of the capitalist countries and 90-95 per cent of the information media". In 1781, the Jewish masonic leader Johann Georg (Ivan) Schwartz at a Masonic Congress in Frankfurt, where he represented the Russian freemasonry. There it was decided that Russian freemasonry should be headed by just Schwartz, who actually came from Transylvania. At the convention organized by Adam Weishaupt at Wilhelmsbad Castle in Hanau in 1782, Russia became the eighth province of freemasonry. It was agreed to annihilate the monarchy in France (Alexander Selyaninov, "The Secret Power of Freemasonry", Moscow, 1999, p, 163 126). Schwartz later become professor at the University of Moscow, all arranged by the masonic brothers. In 1875 at the Masonic Congress in Paris, the illuministic practise of sacrificing blood by means of murder committed by freemasons was unanimously sanctioned. It was to become one of the main secrets of freemasonry (Nicolas Deschamps, "Les societes secretes", Paris, 1881). Freemasonry and Politics As early as 1709, the London periodical the Tatler issued a warning about the freemasons, "who are involved in dangerous political activities". The freemason Gonnoud stated at the banquet of the convent of the Grand Lodge of France on 18 September 1886: "We have been accused of concerning ourselves too much with politics, but what else should we be concerned with By all means do we formally declare that we neither deal with religion nor politics. Thus freemasonry is engaged in an utterly dangerous war against the world to accomplish radical political and magic changes, that will benefit its own perverted interests. All the Italian convulsions from 1822 up to the last glorious events, to whom should they be attributed if not the Order. If so it is written in several masonic statutes, that freemasons are peaceful and must hold the laws sacred, it only serves to l u l l the tyrants suspicions. Under their influence are several popular organizations, movements and societies with various names - all these are but various forms of freemasonry. The French historian Edouard Fribourg, who was one of the founders of the Internationale, admitted in his book "Association Internationale des Travailleurs" (Paris, 1871) that the organization always stood for the interest of the freemasonry and not the workers. He stressed the fact that the Internationale everywhere was supported by freemasonry (William T.

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It has been described primarily among heterosexual men and should not be confused with the behavior of some gay men known as drag queens (for whom cross-dressing has a very different purpose and meaning) diabetes in dogs and skin conditions avapro 300mg low price. People who engage in transvestic fetishism usually keep a collection of female clothes that are used to cross-dress diabetes hypertension medications cheap avapro online american express. The person masturbates while he is cross-dressed diabetic ulcer foot buy cheap avapro 300 mg, often imagining himself to be a male as well as the female object of his own sexual fantasy diabetes in dogs life span purchase genuine avapro online. Aside from their interest in cross-dressing, men with transvestic fetishism are unremarkably masculine in their interests, occupations, and other behaviors. For some men, transvestism may eventually lead to feelings of dissatisfaction with being male (Zucker & Blanchard, 1997). These men, who develop persistent discomfort with their gender role or identity, would be assigned a subtype diagnosis of transvestic fetishism with gender dysphoria. In some large cities, clubs cater to the sexual interests of masochistic men and women, who pay people to inflict pain on them. The person may become aroused by being bound, blindfolded, spanked, pinched, whipped, verbally abused, forced to crawl and bark like a dog, or in some other way made to experience pain or feelings of shame and disgrace. Masochists desire certain types of pain (which are carefully controlled to remain within specified limits, usually unpleasant but not agonizing), but they also go to great lengths to avoid injury during their contrived, often ritualized experiences (Stoller, 1991). They do not enjoy, and are not immune 320 Chapter 12 Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders masochistic desires. After many years of privately harboring masochistic sexual fantasies, Merkin finally described her fascination with spanking to a man whom she had been dating for several months. The sheer tactile stimulation of it-the chastening sting-would have been enough to arouse me, but there was also, at last, the heady sense of emotional release: I was and was not a child; was and was not being reduced; was and was not being forced into letting go; was and was not the one in control. I had fantasized about this event for so long that in the back of my mind there had always lurked the fear that its gratification would prove disappointing. She eventually became involved in a relationship with another man that she described as "a fairly conventional romance that included some light (sadism and masochism). Spanking and its accoutrements may have helped to subdue my simmering rage toward men-as well as theirs toward me- but it also demonstrated how far I was from healthy intimacy, from the real give-and-take that makes a relationship viable. The following first-person account was written by Daphne Merkin (1996), an accomplished writer whose fascinating and controversial essay on masochism appeared in the New Yorker. Depending on my mood, these daydreams were marked by an atmosphere of greater or lesser ravishment, but all of them featured similar ingredients. Most important among them was a heightened-and deeply pleasurable-sense of exposure, brought about by the fact that enormous attention was being paid to my bottom, and by the fact that there was an aspect of helpless display attached to this particular body part. This scenario, in which my normally alert self was reduced to a condition of wordless compliance via a specific ritual of chastisement, exerted a grip that was the more strong because I felt it to be so at odds with the intellectually weighty, morally upright part of me. Do you think that voluntary sexual activities performed with a consenting partner should be considered symptoms of a disorder Paraphilias 321 this case illustrates the compelling and often contradictory nature of the fantasies that are associated with paraphilias. This successful and independent woman, who did not believe in using corporal punishment with her own daughter, found great pleasure associated with fantasies of being spanked by a man. Merkin would not have qualified for a diagnosis of sexual masochism, even after she had acted on her fantasies, unless she experienced subjective distress or social impairment as a result. Like Daphne Merkin, many people who engage in masochistic sexual practices are highly educated and occupationally successful. Masochists tend to be disproportionately represented among the privileged groups in society. This pattern leads to the suggestion that masochism may be motivated by an attempt to escape temporarily from the otherwise constant burden of maintaining personal control and pursuing self-esteem (Baumeister & Butler, 1997). Sexual Sadism Someone who derives pleasure by inflicting physical or mental pain on other people is called a sadist. The term is based on the writings of the Marquis de Sade, whose novels describe the use of torture and cruelty for erotic purposes. Sadistic fantasies often involve asserting dominance over the victim; the experience of power and control may be as important as inflicting pain (Hucker, 1997). Some people engage in sadistic sexual rituals with a consenting partner (who may be a sexual masochist) who willingly suffers pain or humiliation.

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The waters in which these corals live are nutritionally poor and diabetes diet sample cheap 300mg avapro with amex, without this mutualism pre diabetes definition ada purchase avapro 150mg fast delivery, it would not be possible for large corals to grow because there are few planktonic organisms for them to feed on blood glucose monitoring cheap avapro 300 mg on line. Some corals living in deeper and colder water do not have a mutualistic relationship with protists; these corals must obtain their energy exclusively by feeding on plankton using stinging cells on their tentacles diabetes 2 prevention avapro 150mg discount. These fishes can feed on coral, the cryptofauna (invertebrates found within the calcium carbonate structures of the coral reefs), or the seaweed and algae that are associated with the coral. The animals that create coral reefs do so over thousands of years, continuing to slowly deposit the calcium carbonate that forms their characteristic ocean homes. Bathed in warm tropical waters, the coral animals and their symbiotic protist partners evolved to survive at the upper limit of ocean water temperature. The excessive warmth causes the coral organisms to expel their endosymbiotic, foodproducing protists, resulting in a phenomenon known as bleaching. The colors of corals are a result of the particular protist endosymbiont, and when the protists leave, the corals lose their color and turn white, hence the term "bleaching. As human coastal populations increase, the runoff of sediment and agricultural chemicals has increased, causing some of the once-clear tropical waters to become cloudy. When change occurs rapidly, species can become extinct before evolution leads to newly adapted species. Estuaries: Where the Ocean Meets Fresh Water Estuaries are biomes that occur where a river, a source of fresh water, meets the ocean. Therefore, both fresh water and salt water are found in the same vicinity; mixing results in a diluted (brackish) salt water. Estuaries form protected areas where many of the offspring of crustaceans, mollusks, and fish begin their lives. Salinity is an important factor that influences the organisms and the adaptations of the organisms found in estuaries. The salinity of estuaries varies and is based on the rate of flow of its freshwater sources. Low tides occurring at the same frequency reverse the current of salt water (Figure 20. Army Corps of Engineers) the daily mixing of fresh water and salt water is a physiological challenge for the plants and animals that inhabit estuaries. Many estuarine plant species are halophytes, plants that can tolerate salty conditions. Halophytic plants are adapted to deal with salt water spray and salt water on their roots. When these animals are exposed to low salinity, they stop feeding, close their shells, and switch from aerobic respiration (in which they use gills) to anaerobic respiration (a process that does not require oxygen). When high tide returns to the estuary, the salinity and oxygen content of the water increases, and these animals open their shells, begin feeding, and return to aerobic respiration. Freshwater Biomes Freshwater biomes include lakes, ponds, and wetlands (standing water) as well as rivers and streams (flowing water). Humans rely on freshwater biomes to provide aquatic resources for drinking water, crop irrigation, sanitation, recreation, and industry. Lakes and ponds are found in terrestrial landscapes and are therefore connected with abiotic and biotic factors influencing these terrestrial biomes. Lakes and Ponds Lakes and ponds can range in area from a few square meters to thousands of square kilometers. During the summer in temperate regions, thermal stratification of deep lakes occurs when the upper layer of water is warmed by the Sun and does not mix with deeper, cooler water. The process produces a sharp transition between the warm water above and cold water beneath. The two layers do not mix until cooling temperatures and winds break down the stratification and the water in the lake mixes from top to bottom.

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