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The psychodynamic theories of object relations and attachment focus on the child-caregiver relationship and assume that basic human motivation is for interpersonal connection bacteria you can eat buy cipro with paypal. This idea that early childhood experiences are critical and the concept of therapy as a way of improving human lives antibiotic 74-ze buy cipro 1000 mg amex, are both derived from current psychodynamic perspective and remain important to psychology (Moore & Fine antibiotics for sinus infection omnicef purchase cipro 500 mg overnight delivery, 1995) infection 7 days to die buy discount cipro 500 mg. Behavioral Perspective: Although they differed in approach, both structuralism and functionalism were essentially studies of the mind. The psychologists associated with behaviorism, on the other hand, were reacting in part to the difficulties psychologists encountered when they tried to use introspection to understand behavior. Behaviorism is based on the premise that it is not possible to objectively study the mind, and therefore psychologists should limit their attention to the study of behavior itself. Behaviorists believe that the human mind is a black box into which stimuli are sent and from which responses are received. They argue that there is no point in trying to determine what happens in the box because we can successfully predict behavior without knowing what happens inside the mind. Furthermore, behaviorists believe that it is possible to develop laws of learning that can explain all behaviors. Watson and the other behaviorists began to use these ideas to explain how events that people and other organisms experienced in their environment, called stimuli, could produce specific behaviors called responses. In his research, Watson found that systematically exposing a child to fearful stimuli in the presence of objects that did not themselves elicit fear could lead the child to respond with a fearful behavior to the presence of the stimulus (Watson & Rayner, 1920; Beck, Levinson, & Irons, 2009). In the best known of his studies, an 8-month-old boy named Little Albert was used as the subject. Here is a summary of the findings: the boy was placed in the middle of a room; a white laboratory rat was placed near him and he was allowed to play with it. After several such pairings of the two stimuli, the child was again shown the rat. In line with the behaviorist perspective, the boy had learned to associate the white rat with the loud noise, resulting in crying. Additionally, he used the general principles of behaviorism to develop theories about how best to teach children and how to create societies that were peaceful and productive (Skinner, 1957, 1968, 1972). The behaviorists made substantial contributions to psychology by identifying the principles of learning. Although the behaviorists were incorrect in their beliefs that it was not possible to measure thoughts and feelings, their ideas provided new ideas that helped further our understanding regarding the nature-nurture debate, as well as the question of free will. The ideas of behaviorism are fundamental to psychology and have been developed to help us better understand the role of prior experiences in a variety of areas of psychology. He argued that free will is an illusion and that all behavior is determined by environmental factors. Source: 19 Humanistic Perspective: Another perspective which focuses on thinking and emotions is humanism. Humanism embraces the concepts of self, self-esteem, self-actualization, and free will. The humanistic perspective, popularized in the 1950s, was referred to as the "Third Force" in psychology (Moore, 1989). This perspective was seen as an alternative to the deterministic and pessimistic approach of the psychoanalytic perspective. The humanistic perspective believes that individuals possess personal choice and can rise above the unconscious desires suggested by Freud and his followers. Additionally, the humanistic perspective counters the blank slate belief and constraints imposed by the environment, as suggested by the behaviorist perspective. Humanists, such as Carl Rogers (1902-1987) and Abraham Maslow (1908-1970), believed that each individual strives to reach their full potential. Rogers and Maslow stressed self-actualization, which is "the inherent tendency of an organism to develop all of its capacities in ways which serve to maintain or enhance the organism," (Rogers, 1959, p. They also viewed individuals as basically trustworthy, possessing dignity and worth, and desiring to be in harmony with others. The therapist should provide an empathic and nonjudgmental alliance and provide unconditional positive regard towards the client.
Today and in the past infection years after a root canal purchase cipro from india, when faced with people different from them antibiotic 8 months baby order cipro now, the groups with the power often have segregated antibiotic 2 hours late discount cipro express, enslaved bacteria never have buy cipro amex, and/or eliminated the weaker groups. When faced with art and artifacts different from their own, the groups with the power often interpret differences to be dangerous and destroy the material culture of others. This chapter examines the interpretive study of art that is historically old and art that is foreign to us by looking at examples of Western paintings and at a magnificent architectural structure with sculptures from the East. This chapter is not a comprehensive story of world art through time and across cultures. The examples, however, provide insight into challenges of understanding and appreciating much world art. About culturally different art, of the past and present, we generally wonder, What does or did it mean to them, there They distinguish this looking from high technology examinations with sophisticated specialized equipment. They understand that much interpretation rests on material evidence that works of art provide. As historians interested in material evidence, these are the questions they ask and attempt to answer about works of art: Is the painting correctly dated The painting was made by two famous Italian artists of the Renaissance, Giovanni Bellini and Titian. Second, if we accept that it was Titian who made the final alteration, who made the first change to the Bellini composition He failed to do this, but Bull states that he did manage to acquire four "superb" Venetian paintings. Historians are able to accurately trace the succession of owners of the Feast of the Gods. Bull writes that in 1598, when the Este line of succession failed, the City of Ferrara reverted to the papacy. After that it went to Alnwick Castle in England in 1856, and it was bought by Joseph Widener in 1922 and hung in Lynnewood Hall in Philadelphia, until it was given to the National Gallery of Art as the "central star of the Widener Gift in 1942. In 1956, John Walker, then director of the National Gallery, undertook a study of the styles and tastes of Bellini and Titian, and published a book that celebrates the Feast of the Gods and that includes reproductions of X-radiographs of the painting.
Oftentimes interpreters provide biographical information that usefully informs their interpretations antibiotic 4 uti order cipro 250 mg with amex. Such biographical information can be used to provide insight into the work that is being interpreted infection eyes generic cipro 750mg amex. Biographical information reminds us that art does not emerge apart from a social environment antibiotics pink eye purchase cipro 1000 mg online. There is a caution virus names cheap cipro 250mg without prescription, however, that concerns what might be termed "biographical determinism. Artists should not be locked into their biographic pasts, nor should one argue that if someone is of this race or that gender or this historical background, then their art must be about such factors. There is no way out from seeing art as a reflection or meditation or a comment on life. The Temple Dharna Vihara in Ranakpur (chapter five) is the physical form of metaphysical beliefs of the Jains. Photographs (chapter six), because they are made by capturing light reflected from real-world objects, are intrinsically dependent on the physical world. In addition to these examples, all art can be shown and seen to emerge from the context of the time and the space in which it was made. In the words of Michel Foucault, "a text is made up of multiple writings, drawn from many cultures and entering into mutual relations of dialogue, parody, contestation. This principle asserts that all 218 art can be interpreted with respect to how it is influenced by other art. An important guide to interpreting any art is to see how it relates to or indirectly comments upon other art, both "popular" and "fine. Artists, like all of us, are also immersed in an inescapable visual culture that influences them consciously and unconsciously. Willem de Kooning is quoted (chapter four) as stating that his Women paintings "had to do with the female painted through the ages. Apart from the artwork, the interpretation is a good story or a compelling account of a matter or an intriguing idea or notion. Coherence is an autonomous criterion in that it simply asks that the interpretation make sense in itself and apart from the work of art. The criterion asks that the interpretation be logical, that its premises lead to a conclusion, that it has a certain elegance and efficiency of explanation. Of course, a good story or a good account of a work of art that does not match the actual work of art that is being interpreted is not a good interpretation of that work.
Fortunately virus in us 500mg cipro visa, significant advances have been achieved in understanding the biology and ecology of some of our most damaging invasive insects antibiotics for uti south africa cipro 750mg low cost, pathogens infection without elevated wbc buy cheap cipro line, plants antibiotics for staph quality 500 mg cipro, vertebrates, and aquatic organisms. Additional information about the biology and impacts of damaging invasive species is given in Chap. Native insects such as mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) may also vector invasive pathogens including West Nile virus and Zika virus that impact animals and humans (Fauci and Morens 2016; Reisen 2013). Understanding the life history of invasive insects is critical for predicting and modeling population growth and spread, timing the application of control tactics to target vulnerable life stages, and directing the location and implementation of survey and management strategies. Basic biology and life cycles have been studied for many invasive insects: environmental factors that influence 1-year or 2-year development and thus affect population growth and spread rates of emerald ash borer (Tluczek et al. Information on the biology, economic impacts (from damage and control), and pest management of spotted lanternfly is currently incomplete for fully informing the feasibility of eradication. Wide host range; preferred genera include Alnus, Fagus, Betula, Quercus, Populus, and Salix Tsuga spp. Wide host range; preferred genera include Quercus, Acer, Prunus, Tilia, Fraxinus, and Ulmus Quercus spp. Identification of the country of origin facilitates exploration for natural enemies, location of genetic material for developing host resistance, and evaluation of control strategies in the native range with well-established populations. Sophisticated techniques have been developed and used to measure insect flight capacity and spread: harmonic radar for Asian longhorned beetle (Williams et al. This information is also useful for predicting the spread and subsequent distribution of new populations, thereby improving rapid detection and eradication efforts. Determining the range of host species and host interactions of invasive insects in the introduced ecosystem is essential for effective management. Invasive insects that reach high densities, which then encounter different tree species within their host genera as well as other genera in their new environment, may respond by colonizing a range of new hosts that are not infested when densities are lower. The emerald ash borer has recently been found to infest a novel host, the native white fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus) in North America (Cipollini 2015). The Asian longhorned beetle attacks >100 species of trees but prefers maples (Acer spp. Although all North American species of ash encountered by emerald ash borer to date are susceptible, preferences differ among species and are related to differ- 7 Management of Landscapes for Established Invasive Species 141 ences in host volatiles, nutrition, and defense compounds (Chen and Poland 2010; Chen et al. Sirex woodwasp infests a wide range of pine (Pinus) species across its global distribution; however, preferences among species are poorly understood because attacked trees are often growing in monocultures (Slippers et al. Goldspotted oak borer colonizes several species of oaks in California, including coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), California black oak (Q. Redbay ambrosia beetle attacks redbay (Persea borbonia) and several other tree species in the family Lauraceae, including sassafras (Sassafras albidum) and avocado (Persea americana) (Mayfield et al. The spotted lanternfly is known to feed on plants in more than 20 families; however, the relationship between it and tree of heaven provides an opportunity to reduce tree of heaven populations using a combination of pest population reduction and host removal. Significant advances have been made in analytical chemistry techniques for identifying semiochemical attractants including insect-produced pheromones and host kairomones. Semiochemical attractants are used for detecting and monitoring many species of insects which rely heavily on olfactory cues for mate and host selection. For example, the semiochemical lure quercivorol was recently found to be highly attractive to polyphagous shot hole borer and Kuroshio shot hole borer (Euwallacea spp. Coupled gas-chromatographic-electroantennographic detection has been used to identify maleproduced aggregation pheromones that attract both sexes of sirex woodwasp (Cooperband et al. Identification of insect-produced pheromones has been more challenging for Asian longhorned beetle and emerald ash borer. In these species, host volatiles are considered to be more effective for long-distance attraction and for synergizing attraction to close range or contact pheromones (Crook and Mastro 2010; Nehme et al. Volatiles from the symbiotic laurel wilt fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) synergize host volatiles present in manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) oil in facilitating attraction of redbay ambrosia beetle (Kuhns et al. Examples of some of the most significant diseases caused by invasive pathogens infecting trees and wildlife in North America are summarized in Table 7. Understanding genetics of invasive pathogens aids in accurate identification of causal agents of disease.
Removal of foxes on 39 islands what kind of antibiotics work for sinus infection cheap cipro 1000 mg, while expensive antimicrobial resistance and infection control cipro 750 mg visa, was immediately successful with a fivefold increase in nesting birds in 10 years (Ebbert and Byrd 2002) xtenda antibiotic purchase cipro paypal. The native Aleutian goose (Branta hutchinsii leucopareia) population in the Aleutian Islands went from 1000 birds in 1975 to over 35 can i get antibiotics for acne order cipro 750 mg without prescription,000 by 2000 once invasive mammal predators were removed. Likewise, in Hawaii, almost all of the native birds are threatened by invasive rodents and other mammalian predators (Amarasekare 1993; Hammond et al. Additional research should focus on identifying and quantifying complex impacts that cascade across trophic levels. Species of concern represent diverse taxonomic groups and include not only angiosperms (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous flowering plants) but also macroalgae with plant-like growth forms. Regardless of growth form, aquatic invasive plants can have severe effects, altering environmental conditions, ecosystem processes, plant and animal communities, and human uses of water bodies. Freshwater aquatic habitats appear to be disproportionately vulnerable to and negatively affected by invasive species compared to terrestrial habitats (Moorhouse and Macdonald 2015). This is because of both the wide range of vectors available for spread of live organisms, such as 2 Impacts of Invasive Species in Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems in the United States 25 boats, ballast water, and the aquarium trade, and the susceptibility of aquatic systems to hydrologic, nutrient, and other disturbances (Lodge et al. Aquatic invasive plants are not only "drivers" of change that directly alter habitats but also "passengers" of change that have become more abundant in response to anthropogenic stressors and disturbances (sensu MacDougall and Turkington 2005). The extent to which invasive plants impair aquatic habitats, and to which they can be effectively controlled, depends on a variety of factors, including site conditions, detection and response times, and management decisions. As invasive plants become more abundant in an aquatic habitat, their potential impacts on environmental conditions increase. These environmental changes can then have cascading effects on biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and human uses. A fundamental attribute altered by invasive plants is light availability, particularly when canopyproducing floating. Aquatic invasive plants can also alter microclimates, for example, reducing water and substrate temperatures and variability (Larkin et al. Dissolved oxygen is of particular concern, as it can become depleted when high biomass of senesced invasive plants undergoes microbial decomposition or at night or during prolonged cloud cover when oxygenproducing photosynthesis gives way to oxygen-consuming respiration in large mats of vegetation (Caraco and Cole 2002; Pennington 2014; Sousa 2011). Changes to key ecosystem processes accompany these shifts in environmental conditions. For example, primary productivity often increases with aquatic plant invasions (Nichols and Shaw 1986; Zedler and Kercher 2004). Movement of water may be disrupted by dense growth of non-native vegetation and sediment can be trapped at higher rates (Petticrew and Kalff 1992; Rooth et al. Rates of litter decomposition, sediment accumulation, and cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and other nutrients can be altered (Joyce et al. Changes in dominant vegetation following invasions influence the food webs and flow of energy through aquatic systems (Gratton and Denno 2006; Kelly and Hawes 2005). In evaluating these and other impacts of invasive species, it is important to bear in mind that both native and non-native species can act as ecosystem engineers in aquatic habitats (Crain and Bertness 2005; Duffy 2006; Posey et al. It is when non-native species have traits that are novel in the habitats they invade, i. For example, invasive aquatic plants may occupy areas of habitat that would otherwise be unvegetated, produce substantially more biomass, or differ from native species with respect to growth form, phenology, tissue chemistry, position in the habitat, or other functional traits (Bolduan et al. Under these circumstances, there is high potential for harm to aquatic habitats and associated human uses of these systems. Native macrophytes can be displaced by invasive species that are superior competitors for space, light, or nutrients (Gettys et al. Earlier phenology, more rapid growth, multiple reproductive mechanisms, or other "weedy" traits enable invasive macrophytes to outcompete native species for light (Woolf and Madsen 2003; Zedler and Kercher 2004). High stem densities and thick floating mats monopolize space, depriving native plants of suitable habitat (Hummel and Kiviat 2004; Schooler et al. Higher rates of nutrient uptake and utilization can also confer competitive advantages to invasive aquatic species over native species (Larkin et al. The effects of aquatic invasive plant species on fish and other wildlife are of great concern. By reducing dissolved oxygen, dense growth of invasive plants can drive off or cause mortality of invertebrates and fish (Madsen 1997). Invasive plants can also have less acute effects that nonetheless deprive invertebrates, fish, and birds of suitable habitat, foraging resources, or nursery/breeding sites (Able and Hagan 2000; Glisson et al. However, because invasive plants may provide shelter and primary production that benefit certain animals, aquatic invasive plants do not necessarily decrease total invertebrate or fish diversity but may instead alter the community composition of these groups by favoring species adapted to higher stem densities or other differences in structure (Chick and Mlvor 1997; Engel 1987; Theel et al.
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