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Deputy Director, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
Of the 50 fixes shown symptoms gallbladder problems buy dexamethasone 4 mg online, eight (16%) were in the forest and 42 (84%) were in the savanna treatment generic dexamethasone 4mg on-line. For example medicine grapefruit interaction buy 4 mg dexamethasone amex, as these elephants apparently avoided the riverine areas medicine 75 yellow generic dexamethasone 4mg with mastercard, fixes on the river could indicate drinking and thus favourite drinking times. Acknowledgements l would like to thank the National Parks Board of South Africa for permission to present this overview. The management goals of a protected area authority can vary from the preservation of habitats in a chosen status quo. Martin & Conybeare 1992), to the maintenance of maximal biodiversity (Western 1989), to the conservation of ecological processes which allows latitude for habitat change (Sinclair 1983). Generally, researchers are asked by managers to address a question which can be expressed simply as "are elephants causing the reduction of a woodland? It may be possible to provide an answer fairly readily to this simple question and to related questions about the rate of the change, but the management of wildlife areas might be improved if research can pose and answer more difficult questions about all the factors controlling woodland establishment and change. These are huge topics, with a long history of research and a vast literature in each area. It is also the case that tree populations are affected by environmental factors other than elephants. These factors include fire, climatic extremes such as drought, high rainfall and flooding or frost and high wind, browsing by other herbivores and the activities of man. Elephant population dynamics are generally slow - they are long-lived, reproduce at a low rate, and have low mortality. Achieving a complete understanding of the interactive processes involved would require several centuries of observation, but a framework for understanding can be developed through building models of the hypothesised relationships between elephants and their habitats. A model can be simple or complex, from a diagram with boxes and arrows on a piece of paper to a detailed systems model on a computer. Any model developed should be seen as a tool for describing and understanding a system which operates on a scale which is larger than the human life span. It will discuss other aspects of elephanthabitat interactions in broad terms and provide information on the literature sources of these subjects. To gain a deeper understanding of the population dynamics of trees, it is necessary to look at the rate of loss of adult, canopy level trees, and the rates of establishment, growth and survival of smaller size classes through time. The degree to which these rates are affected by elephants as well as by other factors, such as fire and other herbivores, is also important. These include various forms of remote sensing, a broad term which includes both images obtained from satellites and from aircraft. Satellite images are useful for mapping and assessing changes in ground cover over large areas at a relatively low cost. Images are produced from measurements of the reflectance of light at different wavelengths, some of which are specifically directed at vegetation cover. This can allow rapid classification of large areas of ground if the reflectance characteristics of vegetation can be identified. The reflectance data are well-suited for classifying vegetation which is fairly uniform over large areas, and less so when the pattern of spatial variation is complex. They can be used to great effect for mapping areas of bare ground or burned areas. However, there are a number of factors which can affect the reflectance of vegetation including the complexity of plant vertical or horizontal structure and variations in moisture content, soil type, atmospheric effects such as dust or water vapour and the angle of the sun at different times of year. As noted above in the discussion of vegetation mapping, sophisticated computer techniques can also be a drawback when these facilities are not available, and this can put satellite data out of the reach of many. There are a number of remote sensing centres located in Africa where images can be processed on request and a growing number of companies which specialise in these techniques. The application of satellite imagery to elephant -habitat interaction is still an early stage, but may ultimately prove to be a very useful technique (Nellis & Bussing 1990). Quantitative information on habitat structure over large areas, and through time can be obtained from aerial photos. Generally the type of photographs which are available for this purpose are vertical photographs produced by 9. Such a map is useful for two reasons: a) to determine the relative area and location of specific vegetation communities of concern, such as riverine woodland or hilltop thickets, and b) to provide a basis for the stratification of sampling effort (see below).
In studies of more than 100 symptoms of the flu quality dexamethasone 0.5 mg,000 American adolescents symptoms rheumatoid arthritis buy discount dexamethasone, girls also modestly surpassed boys in memory for picture associations (Hedges & Nowell symptoms after conception generic dexamethasone 0.5mg on-line, 1995) symptoms insulin resistance best dexamethasone 4 mg. Robert Rosenthal, Judith Hall, and their colleagues (1979; McClure, 2000) discovered this while studying sensitivity to emotional cues (an aspect of emotional intelligence). For example, after showing a 2-second scene revealing only the face of an upset woman, the researchers asked people to guess whether the woman was criticizing someone for being late or was talking about her divorce. Rosenthal and Hall found that some people, many of them women, are much better emotion detectors than others. Math and spatial aptitudes On math tests given to more than 3 million representatively sampled people in 100 independent studies, males and females obtained nearly identical average scores (Hyde et al. But again-despite greater diversity within the genders than between them-group differences make the news. In 20 of 21 countries, females displayed an edge in math computation, but males scored higher in math problem solving (Bronner, 1998; Hedges & Nowell, 1995). In Western countries, virtually all math prodigies participating in the International Mathematics Olympiad have been males. In the United States, males also have an edge in the annual physics and computer science Advanced Placement exams (Stumpf & Stanley, 1998). Exposure to high levels of male sex hormones during the prenatal period does enhance spatial abilities (Berenbaum et al. So, one recent experiment indicates, does action video game play· Among entering American collegians, 22 percent of men and 4 ing (Feng et al. Spatial abilities skills help when fitting suitcases into a car percent of women report having trunk, playing chess, or doing certain types of geometry problems. Such differences are, he notes, observed across cultures, stable over time, influenced by prenatal hormones, and observed in genetic boys raised as girls. Other researchers are exploring a brain basis for male-female cognitive differences (Halpern et al. Elizabeth Spelke (2005), however, urges caution in charting male-female intellecNature or nurture? It oversimplifies to say that women have more "verbal ability" and men sponsored computer coding competi- tion, more "math ability. What do you think accounted Women excel at rapid math calculations, men at rapid math reasoning. Gender-equal cultures, such as Sweden and Iceland, exhibit little of the gender math gap found in gender-unequal cultures, such as Turkey and Korea (Guiso et al. In the United States, the male edge in math problem solving is detectable only after elementary school. Traditionally, math and science have been considered masculine subjects, but as more parents encourage their daughters to develop their abilities in math and science, the gender gap is narrowing (Nowell & Hedges, 1998). Yet, notes Diane Halpern (2005) with a twinkle in her eye, "no one has asked if men have the innate ability to succeed in those academic disciplines where they are underrepresented. But as other studies have found, boys were overrepresented at the low and high extremes. Thus, boys outnumber girls at both the low extreme and the high extreme (Kleinfeld, 1998; Strand et al. Ethnic Similarities and Differences Fueling the group-differences debate are two other disturbing but agreed-upon facts: · · Racial groups differ in their average intelligence test scores. High-scoring people (and groups) are more likely to attain high levels of education and income. In recent years, the Black-White difference has diminished somewhat, and among children has dropped to 10 points in some studies (Dickens & Flynn, 2006). Yet the test score gap stubbornly persists, and other studies suggest the gap stopped narrowing among those born after 1970 (Murray, 2006, 2007). And those who can hear outscore those born deaf (Braden, 1994; Steele, 1990; Zeidner, 1990). Everyone further agrees that such group differences provide little basis for judging individuals. But we have also seen that group differences in a heritable trait may be entirely environmental, as in our earlier barrel-versus-homereared boys example. Although height differences within each window box will be genetic, the height difference between the two groups will be environmental. Then give both groups an intelligence test rooted in the dominant language, and (no surprise) those with expertise in that language will score highest.
Ketamine is also reported to inhibit both serum butyrylcholinesterase (Schuh 1975) and brain acetylcholinesterase (Cohen et al treatment 197 107 blood pressure purchase dexamethasone 0.5mg with mastercard. This is noteworthy in itself because ketamine in vitro is a cholinesterase inhibitor (see above) medicine vs engineering discount 0.5mg dexamethasone visa. Energy production Phencyclidine has still other effects on the enzymes involved with energy production medications xerostomia dexamethasone 4mg with amex. In vitro phencyclidine (5 x 10-4M) is an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation (Lees 1962 symptoms jaundice order dexamethasone 0.5mg with visa, 1968). The drug in vitro increased rat liver mitochondrial respiration in low concentrations and depressed it in high concentrations. Van Meter, Owens and Hinwich (1960) using rabbits provided evidence that phencyclidine acts on the cerebral cortex. Our own studies (Domino 1964; Miyasaka and Domino 1968) also implicate a thalamo-cortical action of phencyclidine and its congener, ketamine. Adey and Dunlop (1960) have pointed out that phencyclidine and cyclohexamine in cats suppresses or seriously interferes with learned approach in a T-maze situation. After these drugs stimulation of the thalmic nucleus ventralis anterior failed to elicit nomal hippocamal theta wave activity. Drug-induced changes in the reticulo-cortical system were also seen, but the hippocampal changes were especially apparent. They suggested that hallucinatory and epileptoid phenomena as well as general anesthesia were in part a continuum with reticular, thalamic, cortical and hippocampal alterations, depending upon the class of drugs studied. Winters and Ferrar-Allado (1972) showed that ketamine induced a catatonic state in cats which was accompanied by intermittent or continuous hypersynchronous discharges from the cortex, limbic structures and the medial geniculate nucleus. An especially provocative viewpoint was expressed by Winters (1972) When he suggested ketamine was causing epilepsy instead of anesthesia in man. This point of view has been criticized by Corssen, Little, and Tavakoli (1974) and Domino (1974). Nevertheless, Winters and his colleagues have documented extensively the stimulant and convulsive properties of both phencyclidine and ketamine, especially in animals. There is no question that given enough of each of these substances in an appropriate species, convulsions are seen. The extensive studies of Winters as well as a review of the literature on the 26 neuropharmacology of anesthetics were recently summarized by him (Winters 1976). These investigators concluded that the inability of lobotomized patients to exhibit marked phencyclidine effectsin comparison to the nonlobotamized patients was because thalamcortical integrative mechanisms are necessary to produce typical phencyclidine responses. Since then, the behavioral pharmacology of phencyclidine has been reviewed by Balster and Chait (1976) and again very recently (Balster and Chait, this monograph). Especially important is the evidence that both phencyclidine (Balster and Johanson 1973; Pickens, Thanpson and Muchow 1973) and ketamine (Moreton et al. In addition, drug discrimination studies indicate that phencyclidine, cyclohexamine, and ketamine belong to a class of their own for they do not transfer stimulus control to morphine, chloropromazine, Ditran, 9-tetrahydrocannabinol or pentobarbital. It is especially important to know whether in low dosage there is stimulus generalization of phencyclidine to cocaine and amphetamine-like drugs and in larger dosage to general anesthetics including nitrous oxide, halothane and convulsants like phentylenetetrazol. It was previously known that phencyclidine produces increased locomotor activity in mice which can be augmented by pretreatment with iproniazide (Chen et al. Their data indicate that the stimulation of locmotor activity produced by phencyclidine can be influenced by noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic inputs. The major criticism of this kind of research is that most agonists and antagonists are known to alter rat locomotor activity. Hence, interpretation of such findings is must difficult and probably not very rewarding fran a therapeutic point of view. Perhaps the most important behavioral study that must be done is to answer the question, why do animals and people take these drugs? Why is it reinforcing to mimic the primary symptoms of schizophrenia, to be in coma, convulse, and maybe die from overdosage? I cannot imagine that being a "parsley monster" or being "crystalized" is really very wonderful.
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