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Classification of Nephrons Based on the situation of renal corpuscle administering medications 6th edition buy dilantin 100mg otc, the nephrons are classified into two types: 1 medications over the counter purchase dilantin online pills. Cortical nephrons or superficial nephrons: Nephrons having the corpuscles in outer cortex of the kidney near the periphery medicine 54 357 trusted 100mg dilantin. Juxtamedullary nephrons: Nephrons having the corpuscles in inner cortex near medulla or corticomedullary junction symptoms 6 days dpo cheap dilantin online. It consists of glomerular capillaries interposed between afferent arteriole on one end and efferent arteriole on the other end. All the smaller capillaries finally reunite to form the efferent arteriole, which leaves the Bowman capsule. Functional histology Glomerular capillaries are made up of single layer of endothelial cells, which are attached to a basement membrane. Presence of the fenestra is the evidence of the filtration function of the glomerulus. Bowman Capsule Bowman capsule is a capsular structure, which enclo ses the glomerulus. The cleftlike space between the visceral and parietal layers is continued as the lumen of the tubular portion. Functional histology Both the layers of Bowman capsule are composed of a single layer of flattened epithelial cells resting on a basement membrane. Basement membrane of the visceral layer fuses with the basement membrane of glomerular capillaries on which the capillary endothelial cells are arranged. Thus, the basement membranes, which are fused together, form the separation between the glomerular capillary endothelium and the epithelium of visceral layer of Bowman capsule. Epithelial cells of the visceral layer fuse with the basement membrane but the fusion is not complete. Each cell is connected with basement membrane by cytoplasmic extensions of epithelial cells called pedicles or feet. These pedicles are arranged in an interdigitating manner leaving small cleftlike spaces in between. It is formed by capillary endothelium on one side (red) and visceral layer of Bowman capsule (yellow) on the other side. Functional histology Proximal convoluted tubule is formed by single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells. Characteristic feature of these cells is the presence of hairlike projections directed towards the lumen of the tubule. Because of the presence of these projections, the epithelial cells are called brush-bordered cells. Thick descending segment Thick descending segment is the direct continuation of the proximal convoluted tubule. Thin descending segment Thick descending segment is continued as thin des cending segment. It is formed by flattened epithelial cells without brush border and it is continued as hairpin bend of the loop. Hairpin Bend Hairpin bend formed by flattened epithelial cells without brush border and it is continued as the ascending limb of loop of Henle. Thin ascending segment Thin ascending segment is the continuation of hairpin bend. Thick ascending segment is lined by cuboidal epithelial cells without brush border. The terminal portion of thick ascending segment, which runs between the afferent and efferent arterioles of the same nephrons forms the macula densa.


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Esophagus is transversely cut and the cut ends are drawn out through the hole in the neck iii symptoms 9 days after ovulation purchase dilantin 100 mg otc. This experimental procedure is supported by the preparation of Pavlov pouch with a fistula from the stomach medications qhs discount 100mg dilantin visa. The animal is used for experimental purpose after a week treatment 7th feb cardiff order discount dilantin on-line, when healing is completed symptoms narcolepsy buy dilantin 100 mg free shipping. Advantage of sham feeding Sham feeding is useful to demonstrate the secretion of gastric juice during cephalic phase. In the same animal after vagotomy, sham feeding does not induce gastric secretion. During this phase, gastric secretion occurs even without the presence of food in stomach. The quantity of the juice is less but it is rich in enzymes and hydrochloric acid. From here, the efferent impulses pass through dorsal nucleus of vagus and vagal efferent nerve fibers to the wall of the stomach iv. Vagal efferent nerve endings secrete acetylcho line, which stimulates gastric secretion. ConditionedReflex Conditioned reflex is the reflex response acquired by previous experience (Chapter 162). The sight, smell, hearing or thought of food, which induce salivary secretion induce gastric secretion also. Impulses from the special sensory organs (eye, ear and nose) pass through afferent fibers of neural circuits to the cerebral cortex. From cerebral cortex, the impulses pass through dorsal nucleus of vagus and vagal efferents and reach the stomach wall iii. Vagal nerve endings secrete acetylcholine, which stimulates the gastric secretion. Unconditioned reflex of gastric secretion is prov ed by sham feeding along with Pavlov pouch (see above). Conditioned reflex of gastric secretion is proved by Pavlov pouch and belldog experiment (Chapter 162). Gastric juice secreted during this phase is rich in pepsinogen and hydrochloric acid. Hormonal mechanism through gastrin Stimuli, which initiate these two mechanisms are: 1. Nervous Mechanism Local myenteric reflex Local myenteric reflex is the reflex elicited by stimulation of myenteric nerve plexus in stomach wall. After entering stomach, the food particles stimulate the local nerve plexus (Chapter 36) present in the wall of the stomach. These nerve fibers release acetylcholine, which stimulates the gastric glands to secrete a large quantity of gastric juice. Vagovagal reflex Vagovagal reflex is the reflex which involves both afferent and efferent vagal fibers. Entrance of bolus into the stomach stimulates the sensory (afferent) nerve endings of vagus and generates sensory impulses. These sensory impulses are transmitted by sensory fibers of vagus to dorsal nucleus of vagus, located in medulla of brainstem. This nucleus in turn, sends efferent impulses through the motor (efferent) fibers of vagus, back to stomach and cause secretion of gastric juice. Since, both afferent and efferent impulses pass through vagus, this reflex is called vagovagal reflex. Mechanism involved in the release of gastrin may be the local nervous reflex or vagovagal reflex. Nerve endings release the neurotransmitter called gastrinreleasing peptide, which stimulates the G cells to secrete gastrin. Actions of gastrin on gastric secretion Gastrin stimulates the secretion of pepsinogen and hydrochloric acid by the gastric glands. Experimental evidences of gastric phase Nervous mechanism of gastric secretion during gastric phase is proved by Pavlov pouch.

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Pigment epithelial layer absorbs light and prevents reflection of light rays back from retina symptoms 4dp5dt order generic dilantin on-line. Epithelialcellsstore vitamin A(retinol)and remove the debris from rod cells and cone cells by phagocytic action medications similar to cymbalta buy 100mg dilantin overnight delivery. Layer of Rods and Cones Layerofrodsandconesliesbetweenpigmentepithelial layerandexternallimitingmembrane treatment improvement protocol discount dilantin 100mg overnight delivery. Rodsandcones arethelight-sensitiveportionsofvisualreceptorcells medicine ball purchase 100mg dilantin with visa, namely rod cells and cone cells. Receptor cells are arranged in a parallel fashion and are perpendicular tothe innersurfaceoftheeyeball. Outer Nuclear Layer Outernuclearlayerisformedbythefibersandgranules of rods and cones. Nuclei of rods are smaller and round and the nuclei of cones are larger and oval in shape. Outer Plexiform Layer Outerplexiformlayercontainsreticularmeshwork,formedbyterminalfibersofrodsandconesanddendrites from bipolar cells, situated in the inner nuclear layer. Inner Nuclear Layer Inner nuclear layer contains small oval-shaped, flattened bipolar cells. Axonsofbipolarcellsgoinside and synapse with dendrites of ganglionic cells in the inner plexiform layer. Inner Plexiform Layer Inner plexiform layer of retina consists of synapses between dendrites of ganglionic cells and axons of bi olarcells. Dendrites of ganglion cells synapse with axons of bipolar cells intheinnerplexiformlayer. Layer of Nerve Fibers Layer of nerve fibers is formed by non-myelinated axonsofganglioniccells. Itisformedbytheconvergenceofaxonsfrom ganglion cells, while forming the optic nerve. Fovea Centralis Fovea centralis is a minute depression in the center of macula lutea. Foveal Vision and Extrafoveal vision When one looks at an object, eyeballs are directed towardstheobject,sothat,theimageofthatobjectfalls onfoveaofeacheyeandthepersoncanseetheobject veryclearly. It is a highly viscous and gelatinous substance that is formed by a fine fibrillar network of proteoglycan molecules. Properties of Aqueous Humor Volume Reaction and pH Viscosity Refractoryindex:::: 0. It is formed from plasma within capillary network of ciliary 972 Section 11 t Special Senses Measurement of intraocular pressure is an important part of eye examination. Lens is supported by the suspensory ligaments (zonular fibers),whichareattachedwithciliarybodies. Anterior Epithelium Anterior epithelium is a single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells, situated beneath the capsule. Drainage of Aqueous Humor Fromanteriorchamber,theaqueoushumorpassesinto theanglebetweencorneaandiriscalled limbus. From here, it passes through meshwork of trabeculae situated nearthejunctionofirisandcornea. Thenitflowsthrough canal of Schlemm and reaches the venous system via anterior ciliary vein(Fig. Provides nutrients, oxygen and electrolytes to avascular structures such as lens and cornea iv. Postganglionic fibers arising from here pass through ciliary nerves and innervate the ciliary muscle and constrictor pupillae. Stimulation of parasympathetic nerve fibers causes contraction of ciliary muscle and constrictor pupillae.


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