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Pathogenicity of a microorganism depends on its success in completing some or all of these stages diabetes walk team names buy glimepiride 3mg with mastercard. Virulence factors Virulence factors are those characteristics of a bacterium that enhance its pathogenicity diabetes mellitus type 2 facts buy glimepiride master card, that is managing diabetes zyprexa cheap 3mg glimepiride visa, the ability to cause disease test your diabetes order 3 mg glimepiride. Once entry is achieved, the pathogen must overcome a diversity of host defenses before it can establish itself. These include phagocytosis, the acidic environments of the stomach and urogenital tract, and various hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes found in the saliva, stomach, and small intestine. Pathogenicity of Microorganisms saccharide capsule (for example, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis) have a better chance of surviving these primary host defenses. Adherence to host cells: Some bacteria (for example, Escherichia A Fimbrial (Pilus) Adhesion Pili (fimbriae) Glycolipid Host cell membrane Glycoprotein coli, see p. Other bacteria have cell surface adhesion molecules or particularly hydrophobic cell walls that allow them to adhere to the host cell membrane (Figure 3. A striking example of the importance of adhesion is that of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in which strains that lack pili are not pathogenic (see p. Invasiveness: Invasive bacteria are those that can enter host cells B Afimbrial Adhesion Cell Wall Cell surface adhesion molecule or penetrate mucosal surfaces, spreading from the initial site of infection. Invasiveness is facilitated by several bacterial enzymes, the most notable of which are collagenase and hyaluronidase. These enzymes degrade components of the extracellular matrix, providing the bacteria with easier access to host cell surfaces. Invasion is followed by inflammation, which can be either pyogenic (involving pus formation) or granulomatous (having nodular inflammatory lesions), depending on the organism. C Hydrophobic Adhesion Cell Wall the pus of pyogenic inflammations contains mostly neutrophils, whereas granulomatous lesions contain fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and macrophages. Bacterial toxins: Some bacteria cause disease by producing tox- ins, of which there are two general types: the exotoxins and the endotoxins. Exotoxins, which are proteins, are secreted by both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In contrast, endotoxins, which are lipopolysaccharides, are not secreted, but instead are integral components of the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria. Exotoxins: these include some of the most poisonous sub- Hydrophobic interaction between bacterial cell wall and host cell membrane Figure 3. It is estimated that as little as one microgram of tetanus exotoxin can kill an adult human. Bacterial Pathogenesis 13 rapidly inactivated by moderate heating (60oC), notable exceptions being staphylococcal enterotoxin and E. In addition, treatment with dilute formaldehyde destroys the toxic activity of most exotoxins but does not affect their antigenicity. Formaldehyde-inactivated toxins, called toxoids, are useful in preparing vaccines (see p. Exotoxin proteins are, in many cases, encoded by genes carried on plasmids or temperate bacteriophages. An example is the diphtheria exotoxin that is encoded by the Tox gene of a temperate bacteriophage that can lysogenize Corynebacterium diphtheriae. These effects are produced indirectly by activation of macrophages, with the release of cytokines, activation of complement, and activation of the coagulation cascade. One important evasive strategy for the pathogen is to change its surface antigens. One mechanism, called phase variation, is the genetically reversible ability of certain bacteria to turn off and turn on the expression of genes coding for surface antigens. In this manner, the expressed surface antigen can assume many different antigenic structures (see Figure 11. Pathogenicity of Microorganisms If a particular microorganism is isolated from infected tissue (for example, a necrotic skin lesion), one cannot conclude that the isolated organism caused the lesion. The organism could, for example, be a harmless member of the normal skin flora (see p. Alternatively, the organism may not be a natural resident of the skin, but an opportunistic pathogen that secondarily infected the necrotic lesion. Infections in human populations Bacterial diseases may be communicable from person-to-person or noncommunicable. For example, cholera is highly communicable (the disease-causing organism, Vibrio cholerae, is easily spread), whereas botulism is noncommunicable because only those people who ingest the botulinum exotoxin are affected.
From the lungs diabetes fatigue signs buy 4 mg glimepiride, dissemination can occur to any organ of the body where the fungi can invade and destroy tissue (Figure 20 diabetes symptoms 8 weeks discount glimepiride 3 mg on-line. Clinical significance In spite of the seemingly grave nature of potentially systemic disease blood glucose in newborns discount glimepiride on line, most cases of coccidioidomycosis blood glucose finger stick procedure cheap 2 mg glimepiride otc, histoplasmosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis in otherwise healthy patients present only mild symptoms and are self-limiting. In immunosuppressed patients, however, the same infections can be life-threatening. Lung of a patient with acute coccidioidal pneumonia Yeast form of Blastomyces dermatitidis Coccidioidomycosis Blastomycosis Spherule Possible sites of infection: Possible sites of infection: · Central nervous system · Bone 3 Dissemination of infection the fungi may travel from the lungs to other sites where infection can occur. Most 211 cases of coccidioidomycosis occur in the arid areas of southwestern United States (Figure 20. In the soil, the fungus generates spores by septation of hyphal filaments (arthrospores). These spores become readily airborne and enter the lungs, where they germinate and develop into large (twenty to forty m) spherules filled with many endospores. Rupture of the spherule releases the endospores, each of which can form a new spherule. Pulmonary infections may be acute but relatively benign and selflimiting, or chronic, progressive, and fatal. Disseminated disease results in invasion of cells of the reticuloendothelial system, which distinguishes this organism as the only fungus to exhibit intracellular parasitism. Definitive diagnosis is by isolation and culture of the organism, which is a slow process taking four to six weeks, or by detection of exoantigen, which can be completed in several days. The disease occurs worldwide, but is most prevalent in central North America, especially the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys (Figure 20. Local epidemics of the disease can occur, in particular, in areas where construction has disturbed bird, chicken, and bat roosts. Moderate prevalence High prevalence the wide range of clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis makes it a particularly complex disease, often resembling tuberculosis. Like Histoplasma, the fungus produces microconidia, most often in the soil, which become airborne and enter the lungs. Identifiable colonies can be obtained in one to three weeks, but identity can be established more rapidly by subjecting the young mycelial colonies to an exoantigen test. Infections are most common in the South Central and South Eastern United States, and are much more common in adult males than in females or children. Paracoccidioidomycosis, also called South American blastomy- Urinary tract infections cosis, is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The clinical presentation is much like that of histoplasmosis and blastomycosis except that the most common secondary site of infection is the mucosa of the mouth and nose, where painful, destructive lesions may develop. The disease is restricted to Central and South America, and over ninety percent of patients with symptomatic disease are mature males. It is speculated that female sex hormones may inhibit formation of the yeast form. Laboratory identification these diseases are not communicable from one person to another. Because these organisms have slow growth rates, morphologic identification of the characteristic conidia can take several weeks. A rapid and simple method for identifying the four systemic pathogens discussed above is the exoantigen test in which cell-free antigens produced by young mycelial colonies (or liquid cultures) are detected by immunodiffusion assay. A rapid and accurate diagnostic method uses nucleic acid probes that detect specific fungal sequences. Treatment Systemic mycoses are usually treated with amphotericin B, sometimes in combination with flucytosine. Ketoconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole are also used, depending on the stage and site of the disease. Fungal infections represent approximately fifteen percent of all nosocomial infections in intensive care units in the United States, with Candida species being the most commonly occurring fungal pathogen (Figure 20.
The solution containing cations and anions is fed through the chambers diabetic friendly recipes purchase cheap glimepiride on line, and electromotive forces move the cations toward the cathode and the anions toward the anode diabetes symptoms losing weight purchase glimepiride 3 mg without a prescription. Alternating anode and cathode membranes permit the passage of only one type of ion diabetes in dogs bad breath buy glimepiride mastercard. Hence diabetes medications that help lose weight buy generic glimepiride 3 mg online, after passing from one feed chamber to the next, the ions are blocked by an impermeable membrane. With this process, concentrated waste accumulates in every second chamber, and feed streams are purified in the others. Electrodialysis requires that the membranes have sufficient ion-exchange capacity in addition to small-size (30Е) pores so that they repel electrostatically oppositely charged ions. Excessive current density results in acidic solutions being collected on the cathode side and basic solutions on the anode side of the membranes. The vapor compression method has been tested and evaluated on brackish water, and the commercial applicability of such designs is limited by the capital costs of large vapor compressors. For the removal of inorganic salts with distillation, solar energy can also be used in regions where this source is continuously available. Some common resins are polystyrene cross-linked with divinyl benzene and polyethylene- or fluorocarbon-base resins. Selectivity is characterized by permselectivity, which is defined with reference to transport numbers of ions as follows: Sp tm 1 ts ts 7. This property of selectivity is caused by equilibrium between fixed ionic groups in the membranes and the solution wetting the membranes. As the ions migrate outward from the product chamber, the chamber progressively becomes depleted of ions, and its electrical resistance rises rapidly. Increasing the operating temperature decreases resistance and thus improves the system performance. The build-up of solutes at the membranesolid interface (concentration polarization) also increases electrical resistance. Ions in the feed water that precipitate due to a change in pH or are irreversibly adsorbed by the membranes can cause fouling. The back diffusion of salts due to an increase in salt concentration in one chamber can also reduce the separation efficiency. In addition, in all electrodialysis systems, disposing the concentrated waste generated must be considered. Pretreatment including deaeration, filtration, and other operations is often required, depending on the feed characteristics. Arranging the electrodialysis units in series permits a higher degree of demineralization, while parallel arrangements provide proportionate increases in plant capacity. The continuous process requires interstack pumps and has a peak power demand at startup. Its advantages include steady voltages, minimum power requirements, no recirculation reservoir, and minimum piping and process control. Among its disadvantages, a change in feed water salinity or temperature requires system adjustment, and the process is sensitive to increases in membrane resistance to flow. The continuous process requires that the production rate balances with the flow velocity. Batch-Recirculation Process this process pumps a fixed volume of feed solution from a reservoir through a membrane stack and back to the reservoir until the required salt removal is achieved (see Figure 7. The power requirement for such a batch process depends on the degree of recirculation and mixing. The advantages of this process include the following: (1) changes in feed-water salinity or temperature and changes in membrane properties only modify the production rate but not the effluent quality; and (2) optimum velocity is independent of the production rate. This process has the following disadvantages: (1) Higher power is needed; (2) recirculation reservoirs are required; (3) membranes do not operate at one equilibrium point; (4) current density through membrane also varies; and (5) more piping and control hardware are needed. This process continuously blends and recycles a portion of the product stream with the fresh feed. The power demand of this electrodialysis system is constant under equi- requiring recirculating pumps or interconnecting piping (see Figure 7.
Untreated sludge has more energy available diabetes guidelines 2014 buy discount glimepiride 2 mg line, degrades more readily managing your diabetes patient education program buy 3mg glimepiride with mastercard, and has a higher oxygen demand diabetes diet plan uk purchase glimepiride overnight delivery. Amendment and bulking agent characteristics diabetes type 2 zwanger buy glimepiride 3mg online, such as moisture content, particle size, and available carbon, affect the process and quality of the product. Air with at least 50% oxygen remaining should reach all parts of the composting material for optimum results, especially in mechanical systems. The moisture content of the composting mixture should be not greater than 60% for static pile and windrow composting and not greater than 65% for in-vessel composting. For best results, the temperature should be maintained between 50 and 55°C for the first few days and between 55 and 60°C for the remainder of the composting period. If the temperature increases beyond 60°C for a significant period of time, the biological activity is reduced. Mixing or turning the material being composted on a regular schedule or as required prevents drying, caking, and air channeling. Heavy metals and trace organics in the sludge and finished compost should be monitored so that the concentrations do not exceed the applicable regulations for end use of the product. Factors in selecting a site include the available area, access, proximity to the treatment plant and other land uses, climatic conditions, and availability of a buffer zone. Special Considerations With restrictions on the disposal of sludge, beneficial use of biosolids has become a significant trend. Composting is the leading beneficial reuse technology in terms of manufacturing a product for application to the land. Of course, the success of composting depends on marketing the final compost product. In other words, a use must exist for the compost generated from wastewater sludge. Donovan (1992) notes that the most difficult challenge municipalities face in implementing sludge plans is facility siting. The general public is apprehensive concerning any waste handling facility, and specific concerns about odor, health, traffic, and land values have slowed or stopped many projects. Composting is basically a simple process; it is quite robust and therefore a forgiving process. It can be managed in many cases (such as the backyard compost pile) with little or no technical knowledge. However, as composting applications increase and broaden in scope, the need exists for more sophistication in the design and operation of composting facilities. This need is underscored by the emphasis on aspects such as odor control and compost product quality. Environmental engineers evaluate completed compost in terms of being stable or mature. According to Iannotti, Frost, Toth, and Hoitink (1992), the terms mature and stable are often used interchangeably. Compost maturity is broad and encompassing; it is often linked to the intended use of the compost and is therefore subjective. Compost stability is readily definable by its biological property of microbial activity. Nonetheless, a simple, yet reliable, and universally acceptable analytical tool for evaluating compost stability does not exist. In addition to stability, pathogen destruction is an important characteristic defining product quality. Other characteristics used for compost product specification include the concentration of specific constituents. The major compost uses include large-scale landscaping (golf courses, public works projects, highway median strips), local nurseries, industries (as potting material), greenhouses, urban gardeners, land reclamation projects (strip mines), and landfill (daily and final cover). Often the criteria used are legal regulations such as those for heavy metals and pathogens. Recently, federal regulations have been issued for the use and disposal of sewage sludge, including compost (U. States are now in the process of adopting these regulations or formulating more stringent regulations. Epstein and Donovan (1992) note that pathogens can be grouped under three major headings: primary pathogens, secondary or opportunistic pathogens, and endotoxins.
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