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Ontology-laden reflections Thinking about the nature of psychology Any theoretical discussion would be too narrow if it focused solely on a discipline that was founded in the second half of the nineteenth century blood pressure medication ziac order lopressor with visa. From the discipline of psychology one needs to distinguish what can be understood as psychological topics blood pressure chart in excel buy lopressor without a prescription. Yet psychological topics are 117 Thomas Teo not only covered in the discipline of psychology but also in anthropology sinus arrhythmia buy 50mg lopressor free shipping, sociology blood pressure medication isn't working purchase 50mg lopressor mastercard, education, political science, economics, and so on. Finally one needs to mention professional psychology, or the application of psychological knowledge in practice through experts, which emerged on a large scale only in the second half of the twentieth century in some Western nations. From a historical point of view, theoretical psychologists have paid most of their attention to the academic discipline. From a reconstructive background, one notices that the subject matter of psychology has changed over time: psychology has at various times embraced, for instance, the soul, consciousness, mental life, subjectivity, behaviour, experience, cognition, and the brain as its core. Yet critical psychologists are less interested in an a priori defined subject matter than they are in the question of how the academic discipline and professional psychology have contributed to the subjectification of individuals. There is a relationship among the knowledge produced in psychology, the self-understanding of persons, and power. What psychologists define, research, and conclude defines the very identities of subjects, a process which cannot be understood without power. More traditional topics in theoretical psychology on the nature of the discipline concern questions about the unified or fragmented status of the discipline, and about the healthy or crisis-ridden development of psychology. This has led to major debates, with peaks in the 1930s and 1970s, about the crisis and fragmentation of psychology, debates which have never died out (Goertzen 2008). Although there exists a consensus in critical discourses about the problematic status of mainstream psychology and its sub-disciplines, there is no consensus as to whether psychology should be a unified, fragmented, or pluralistic discipline. For example, German critical psychologists tried to overcome the fragmentation of psychology by developing a conceptual network of core categories that grasp the subject matter comprehensively, historically, and objectively (Holzkamp 1983). Social-constructionist critical psychologists have argued that unification is impossible, may reflect a monotheistic approach to the world, and that pluralism is an inherent feature of psychology because there exist diverse approaches on how to grasp psychological matters (Kirschner 2006). Ward (2002) argued that the lack of unification, or the disorganized and unfocused state of psychology, which theoretical psychologists have identified as sources of its crisis, has contributed to the success of the discipline because it has allowed easy alliances and quick adaptations to various needs. From a critical perspective it is of interest how psychology has become a successful commodity that can be advertised, marketed, sold, and consumed. One stream of theoretical reflection focuses on the limited understanding of human nature in psychology. It has been argued that mainstream psychology operates with a mechanistic, atomistic, and reductionistic model of human mental life and that important ideas representing human subjectivity are based on technological or physiological models. As a methodological consequence, the focus on variables and on isolated aspects of the human mind does not do justice to the integrated character of mental life in concrete individuals in their conduct of life in everyday reality, which always takes place in history, culture, and society. Conceptualizing the sociohistorical reality as a stimulus environment to which one reacts or as an external 118 Theoretical psychology variable with effects does not make sense because individuals are embedded in such contexts (Holzkamp 1983). Another stream of reflection focuses on providing a positive answer by suggesting that human nature is basically societal, an idea that was emphasized by K. Different categories have different implications and a critical concept of society implies a reflection on power and inequality and on their consequences in psychology. To a lesser degree, critical psychologists have tried to answer the traditional question of what it means to lead a happy life. In classical Greek theories happiness meant a life of reason; in Christian theories it meant rejoicing and serving God; in liberal theories happiness meant a free life based on a cultivated and interested mind (in subjects ranging from nature, arts, history, the past, present, and future, to collective themes); and in conservative individualistic theories of human nature happiness meant to submit to authority (if you are powerless) or to aim for (absolute) power (if you are powerful). Whereas Rousseau considered unhappiness as a result of civilization, Karl Marx (1983) saw unhappiness as a result of alienation in a capitalist economy. Some critical psychologists have taken this issue again to the heart by suggesting that psychology should aim for well-being (Prilleltensky 2012), which suggests that wellness is a value that is linked to what it means to be human. From a historical point of view, theoretical psychologists understand psychology as a project that co-defines or co-constructs what it means to be human (see also Smith 2007). All have contributed to the psychologization of society, meaning that we do not understand ourselves and human problems through social, political, or economic categories or theories but through psychological ones. Indeed, psychology has changed what it means to be human and, in that sense, human nature.

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Performance on the two cool executive functions correlated significantly with measures of intelligence pulse pressure limits 25mg lopressor amex, whereas performance on the hot executive function tasks did not blood pressure new normal buy 50mg lopressor otc. These results are consistent with a conceptualization in which cool executive function tasks recruit cognitive functions to a greater degree than do hot executive function measures blood pressure medication brand names purchase lopressor 25mg with mastercard. Cool executive function performance was correlated with some aspects of temperament pulse pressure in athletes buy lopressor 12.5 mg low price, such as effortful control, whereas the hot executive function scores were not related to any measures of temperament. Although the authors used this latter finding as evidence for the independence of hot and cool executive function, they originally hypothesized that hot executive function would significantly covary with the negative affect measure of temperament. Thus, although there is some evidence for a dissociation between hot and cold, the findings, particularly for hot executive findings, were not consistent with predictions. These might be seen as unusual choices of cool executive function tasks, given that both rely much more on motor planning than on cold cognition executive functions such as working memory, goal planning, and flexibility. Both studies involved self-regulation tasks characterized by prohibition and delay as their measures of hot executive function. In both studies, confirmatory factor analysis indicated separate factors aligning with cool and hot executive function; however, the factors were moderately correlated. Additionally, both studies reported that cool executive function per- 4 the Development of Hot and Cool Executive Functions in Childhood and Adolescence. It is important to highlight that the cool executive function tasks represented a departure from the typical measures of this construct, and in fact, it may be the case that these cool tasks tell us less about executive function, per se, and more about overall neural integrity. It is well established that motor dysfunction symptomatology is consistent with a range of developmental disorders that would be associated with academic deficits. Several studies have provided support for the assumption that tasks assumed to measure hot executive processes predict outcomes in realworld settings. These authors created a composite of self-discipline that included questionnaire data obtained from student, parent, and teacher. Most important for the present review, the measure also included performance on two versions of a basic delay discounting paradigm. Of course, a challenge for future research is to continue to explore the variables that drive a relationship between performance on hot tasks and behavioral outcomes. Current evidence suggests that at least some of the variance associated with the relationship between delaying reward and outcome may be associated with general intelligence. For example, meta-analytical evidence has demonstrated a negative correlation between intelligence and delay discounting performance (Shamosh et al. That is, greater intelligence is associated with an increased ability to defer acceptance of a smaller reward in order to obtain a reward of greater value. In summary, there are mixed results yielded by studies with regard to the extent to which hot and cool executive processes differentially predict real-world behaviors in children and adolescents. Whereas it has been hypothesized that cool executive function would better predict academic achievement and hot executive function contribute to "warmer" behaviors such as temperament and self-regulation, the findings of the few studies reviewed do not clearly align with these predictions. Moreover, the fact that two hot tasks, delay of gratification and delay discounting, predict current or later academic outcomes among adolescents serves to point out the difficulty of determining the "hotness" or "coolness" of particular real-world behaviors. For example, most would agree that achievement in high school and college demands both cold cognition and hot emotion regulation abilities. Therefore, more clarity in the definitions of hot and cool processes, in both experimental measures and realworld contexts, is needed. Intriguing Intersections with Other Developmental Questions Our previous review of developmental research examining hot and cool executive functions highlighted recent studies that specifically compared sets of tasks identified by authors as putatively tapping the two domains, or by examining the consequences of manipulating a single executive function task. In what follows, we examine the potential intersections between the hot and cool distinction in two areas of developmental research involving cognition/emotion interaction in which executive function is only peripherally mentioned, if at all. The adolescent risk-taking literature is interesting to consider in light of the risky decision-making tasks. Compliance and Moral Development in Young Children A recent example of an investigation of the cognition-emotion intersection in the development of adaptive behavior is the seminal work of Kochanska and colleagues in which they trace the roots of compliance and moral behavior in young children.

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In the United States this pattern is found among Native American populations and some Hispanic and religious communities heart attack water buy cheap lopressor 25mg on line. However blood pressure pills names best purchase for lopressor, it is only the waterborne route of transmission hypertension teaching for patients discount 50 mg lopressor fast delivery, which has been shown to be of importance in the large outbreaks blood pressure chart video generic lopressor 25mg line. Sporadic cases outside of the regions where outbreaks have been reported are uncommon. However, whether animal-to-human transmission takes place still remains to be established (39). Antibodies develop early in the course of infection and are almost always present at the onset of clinical symptoms. Diagnosis of infection is usually carried out by demonstration of specific IgM and IgG antibodies by enzyme immunoassay. Hepatitis A Virus the virus is ingested with contaminated food or water or from oral contact with contaminated hands. The pathogenesis of hepatitis A infection does not involve direct viral cytopathology but is rather due to the host immune response. It is still not clear whether the pathological changes seen in the liver-hepatic necrosis with lymphocytic and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration-are a reflection of direct cytopathic changes or the result of immunopathological damage. General Measures the measures generally recommended for the prevention of fecal-oral transmission of enteric pathogens are equally applicable to hepatitis A virus infection (20). These are particularly pertinent to travelers journeying to developing countries where standards of hygiene and sanitation may be poor. Water used for drinking, washing of vegetables or fruit, or brushing of teeth is a major hazard to travelers. If in doubt, water should be boiled for at least 1 minute or, at high altitudes, for a few minutes. Alternatively, proprietary chlorine tablets can be used to disinfect water (provided that the water is clear and free of contaminating organic material). Unpasteurized milk and products made from raw milk must be avoided; unpasteurized milk should be boiled before being consumed. Food must be thoroughly cooked and should be eaten while still hot and steaming; this is especially important with minced meat dishes. Street vendors should be avoided if possible, as they are a frequent source of foodborne illness among travelers. Some vegetables, such as lettuce, are particularly difficult to clean thoroughly and are often contaminated. The old adage for travelers still remains pertinent today: "Boil it, cook it, peel it, or forget it! Use of Immunoglobulin for Prophylaxis-Passive Immunization Human immunoglobulin preparations have been successfully used for some 50 years to provide passive protection against hepatitis A virus infection (28). The immunoglobulin fraction is prepared from large numbers of plasma units from blood donors (up to 1000 units) by alcohol precipitation to produce a 16% protein preparation. Immunoglobulin is administered intramuscularly into the gluteal or deltoid muscle (in infants it can be given in the anterolateral muscle mass of the thigh). The only contraindication is selective IgA deficiency (because of the risk of development of autoantibodies). Immunoglobulin is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream to give almost immediate protection. Protection is, however, only temporary-usually up to 3 months, as the administered immunoglobulin is degraded. Immunoglobulin preparations can be given simultaneously with other vaccines (at different sites of the body) (13). Preexposure prophylaxis applies generally to travelers who urgently require protection because of imminent departure to an endemic area. Immunoglobulin may be given together with vaccine to combine the advantage of immediate protection by immunoglobulin with long-term protection by vaccine. Postexposure prophylaxis immunoglobulin is maximally effective if administered as soon as possible after exposure and rapidly loses its efficacy if there is a delay in administration.

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The stichocyte of Trichinella spiralis during morphogenesis in the small intestine of the rat blood pressure chart 80 year old cheap lopressor 12.5mg mastercard. Characterisation of Trichinella spiralis antigens sharing an immunodominant blood pressure treatment purchase lopressor 25mg line, carbohydrate-associated determinant blood pressure 34 year old male buy generic lopressor 50 mg, distinct from phosphocholine hypertension remedies buy 25mg lopressor. Direct evidence that the cuticle surface of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae shares antigenicity with stichocyte alpha granules and the esophagus-occupying substance. Different aetiological agents cause the European outbreaks of horse meat induced human trichinellosis. Comparison of human trichinellosis caused by Trichinella spiralis and by Trichinella britovi. A cerebrovascular disease associated with myocardiac injury and hypereosinophilia. A case of fatal trichinellosis with early renal insufficiency and central nervous system involvement. Activity of selected enzymes in muscle homogenates in the course of trichinellosis in humans and animals (in Polish). Biochemical investigations of the dynamics of proteinase activity at different stages of trichinellosis in mice. Experimental trichinellosis and thiabendazole treatment in Macaca mulatta: clinical and electromyographic observations. Correlation between electromyographic alterations and myopathic enzymatic derrangements in human trichinellosis. The domestic, synanthropic and sylvatic cycles of Trichinella and the flow among them. Distribution of sylvatic species of Trichinella in Estonia according to climate zones. Biological, morphological, and molecular characteristics of Trichinella nativa in arctic foxes from Greenland and Svalbard. Trichinella pseudospiralis populations of the Palearctic region and their relationship with populations of the Nearctic and Australian regions. S Jongwutiwes, N Chantachum, P Kraivichian, P Siriyasatien, C Putaporntip, A Tamburrini, G La Rosa, C Sreesunpasirikui, P Vingyourd, E Pozio. Molecular investigation of African isolates of Trichinella reveals genetic polymorphism in Trichinella nelsoni. Infectivity, persistence, and antibody response to domestic and sylvatic Trichinella spp. Identification of Trichinella genotypes by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. Eosinophils and mononuclear cells as effector cells in a Trichinella spiralis infection; cell biological and biochemical aspects and the use of biological response modifies. Role of T helper 2 cells in intestinal goblet cell hyperplasia in mice infected with Trichinella spiralis. Role of interleukin-4 and interleukin-5 in the gut immune respose to Trichinella spiralis in mice. Mucosal adaptation to invasion by Trichinella spiralis: a lesson in integrative biology. Abstracts of 9th International Conference on Trichinellosis, Mexico City, 1996, p. Persistent intestinal neuromuscular dysfunction after acute nematode infection in mice. Trichinella spiralis: modification of the cuticle of the newborn larva during passage through the lung. Occurrence and characteristics of hypodense eosinophils in rats infected with Trichinella spiralis.

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Each week heart attack 14 year old cheap lopressor 25 mg free shipping, Tracey selects recently published articles that she believes would make for a relevant and interesting podcast blood pressure chart canada order 25 mg lopressor mastercard. Topics have included everything from new breast cancer treatments to expanded prenatal testing for Down syndrome as well as topics that would be of interest to food and nutrition professionals zofran arrhythmia buy lopressor line, such as discussions on trans fats and obesity hypertension malignant cheap lopressor master card. Each Thursday morning, Tracey and Lange discuss the articles and create an hour-long podcast. More download directly from the iTunes Web site, but because iTunes does not yet provide detailed downloading data, Tracey says they are unsure of how many more are listening. Patients scheduled for bypass surgery can download a short clip that explains how the surgery is performed. The site, which has both professional and public portals with content specifically geared toward each group, offers its information at no charge. Like Johns Hopkins and the New England Journal of Medicine, users can download the podcasts for free via the Web site or iTunes. Nutrition Care Process on Wikipedia With the Nutrition Care Process revolutionizing the way food and nutrition professionals practice, those closely aligned with its development decided to get the word out by including an entry about the framework on Wikipedia, the popular online encyclopedia that can be edited by anyone. According to Charney, Wikipedia is the right resource for those who want information quickly. She also argues that wikis have an advantage over print reference material: they can be fixed not only to correct mistakes but to reflect new information. Because of this as well as her experiences with Wikipedia, she thinks food and nutrition professionals deserve their own online encyclopedia. Often used in collaborative projects to document something, Wikipedia. Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia that can be edited by almost anyone, and features over six million articles on everything from presidents to pop stars (1). Wikis, blogs and podcasts: A new generation of Web-based tools for virtual collaborative clinical practice and education. S8 May 2009 Suppl 2 Volume 109 Number 5 practice applications this article is reprinted from the April 2008 issue of the Journal (2008;108: 608-610). Did anything detract from the video, such as jerky camera movement or poor sound quality? You can also post videos on YouTube, for example, and embed them in your blog or link to them from your site. Gather Your Resources Besides visiting other sites, talk to peers, friends, or relatives with video experience. N ow that more than half of all adults have high-speed Internet connections in their homes (1), online video is a fast-growing tool for professionals seeking to reach a wider audience (2). Video is an especially great fit for you and your practice, allowing you to show how to prepare a recipe, for example, while at the same time extending your reach and building your audience. Aase is an awardwinning journalist who frequently writes about health, business, and parenting. Her work has appeared in Weekly Reader Current Health, Minnesota Monthly, Twin Cities Business, Pregnancy, Parenting, Hemispheres, and American Baby. Those with experience recommend using a microphone in addition to the one built into a camera for better control over ambient noise. Your software will tell you which format to save your movie as depending on how you want to use it. Before you do any shooting, write out your script, or what you want to say for each segment. You might need a partner or an interviewer so that you can relax and forget the camera. Pay Attention to Composition At a minimum, make sure you or your subject is always in focus, with eyes in the top third of the frame. Hire Help You can hire professionals to help you at virtually any point in the video process. Weiss and Newell Bissex paid (in the Boston area) about $1,200 a day for a film crew, about $500 per day for a producer, and $200 to $300 an hour for editing-rates that will vary depending on where you live. Besides shooting, editing, and possibly converting video for you, you might also need someone to build your Web site and set up a streaming server to handle your video. A production company can also take your videos or photos by email and add narration, music, or special effects, Gatti says.

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