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A new appendix is devoted to writing research reports using the guidelines provided by the American Psychological Association medicine 7253 pill buy mildronate 500 mg otc. Different types of research are defined symptoms 1dp5dt cheap mildronate 250 mg on line, including basic treatment 5th metatarsal base fracture generic 500mg mildronate, applied treatment 4 anti-aging mildronate 500mg low cost, evaluation, developmental, and cultural research. Chapter 3 explores how topics are selected for study and includes practical information on literature searches. Descriptive research methods are discussed in Chapters 6 and 7, with observational research, case studies, and archival research in Chapter 6 and survey research in Chapter 7. Chapter 8 presents the features that distinguish poorly designed and well-designed experiments. Chapter 9 addresses developmental designs and single-subject designs for special applications in human development research. Guidelines for conducting research are covered in Chapters 10 and 11, with Chapter 10 discussing practical aspects of conducting research such as obtaining participants and selecting variables. Chapter 11 discusses the assessment process and gives practical guidelines on working with special populations and selecting standardized tests appropriate for human development research. Chapters 12 and 13 describe the complexities of factorial designs and their interpretation. Chapters 14 and 15 cover the logic and basic procedures of statistical analysis, including both descriptive and inferential statistics. Appendixes on writing research reports, analyzing data, and statistical tables are included. We gratefully accept any comments and suggestions from readers and instructors using our textbook. The staff at Mayfield have been invaluable; we are grateful to Linda Ward and Lynn Rabin-Bauer for production management, and to Kay Mikel for her diligent editing of the manuscript. We are grateful to the reviewers who provided valuable suggestions for the revision: F. In addition, we owe a debt of gratitude to Nancy Caudill, head of the Interlibrary Loan Unit at California State University, Fullerton, for bringing the resources of distant universities to us. We also thank our students who have offered helpful feedback on the first edition. We particularly thank our friends and colleagues for their encouragement and motivation to work on the project. By the end of the term, you will have the tools you need to critically evaluate research, conduct your own studies, and write reports of your investigations. Research methods for the study of human development include techniques appropriate for research with children of different ages as well as with adults, and research with individuals as well as with groups (for example, families and classrooms). In all cases, the goal is the same: to use the tools of the scientific method to understand the process of human development. These tools can help you clarify your knowledge of age-related changes and guide you to explore new areas of study. In this chapter we introduce the scientific method for studying human behavior and discuss how research is relevant to you as a student and as a future professional in human development and family studies. A background in research methods will help you to read the articles critically, looking for key elements that are characteristic of sound research. You will become an "informed consumer" of research, with the skills to decide whether the results of the study are valid. You may also be asked to write a literature review or a term paper involving critical evaluation of published research. You will have a solid foundation in the basics of research and will be able to do the assignment by relying on the information in this textbook. For example, counselors need to know about the latest advances in family or play therapy techniques. A gerontologist may examine the most effective way to help elderly adults cope with loss of memory skills. An elementary school teacher may want to investigate the current debate in reading instruction before designing a curriculum based entirely on phonics. Educators must keep up with research on the effectiveness of different teaching strategies for visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learners.
In first through third grades medications and grapefruit interactions cheap 500mg mildronate visa, average performance was maintained at grade level medicine administration purchase mildronate 250mg mastercard, but from fourth grade on medicine you can take during pregnancy cheap 500 mg mildronate fast delivery, students in Success For All did not reach grade level medications emt can administer generic mildronate 500 mg, although they continued to progress significantly more rapidly than did comparison-group children. This group difference was also maintained during at least two years of middle school, after leaving the Success For All school (see Figure 7-1). The analysis provides evidence that the intervention benefits even the lowest-achieving students, as well as more able ones. In addition, over successive years of implementation, the positive effects of the program have been observed to increase, although this trend is not entirely consistent (see Englert and Tarrant, 1995, and Chapter 8). Another is that the children in the second year have had the benefit of already having participated in a Success For All program for a year when they enter first grade. Evaluations conducted at sites other than the original ones monitored by the designers have not been as strong and consistent (see Smith et al. Furthermore, as scholars of ancient Hebrew, Greek, and Latin demonstrate, it is possible to become a high-level reader in a language one does not speak at all. These clear cases, though, are generally cases of second-language literacy acquisition after the establishment of proficiency, both oral and written, in a first language. The major question that concerns us is whether it is possible to learn to read for the first time in a second language. Disagreements concerning second-language literacy arise concerning considerably more specific questions about acquisition and ultimate attainment. Does initial literacy instruction in a second language slow or limit ultimate literacy attainment in the second language If initial literacy instruc- tion in a second language is contraindicated, what level of firstlanguage literacy should be considered prerequisite to initiation of second-language literacy teaching Surprisingly, given the many millions of initially non-Englishspeaking children who have acquired literacy in English in the United States, and given the many millions of dollars expended on efforts to evaluate bilingual education programs, straightforward, data-based answers to these questions are not available. The accumulated wis- dom of research in the field of bilingualism and literacy tends to converge on the conclusion that initial literacy instruction in a second language can be successful, that it carries with it a higher risk of reading problems and of lower ultimate literacy attainment than initial literacy instruction in a first language, and that this risk may compound the risks associated with poverty, low levels of parental education, poor schooling, and other such factors. In this section we outline sources of evidence supporting these conclusions, conceding, however, that the definitive study has not been carried out. The evidence presented here relates to findings concerning effects of language of initial literacy instruction and effects of longer-term support for first-language literacy; in many specific cases, it is impossible to tell whether positive or negative consequences for patterns of achievement relate to initial or to ongoing support or lack thereof in the native language. Also, rates of school failure, early dropout, and limited literacy attainment are very high in countries in which second-language literacy instruction is widespread, for instance, the African countries that use formerly colonial languages in schooling (Postlethwaite and Ross, 1992) and in European settings in which immigrant children are given exclusively secondlanguage schooling (Tosi, 1979). Many children learn to read adequately after initial instruction in a second language, both in the United States and in other multilingual settings in which school and home languages are different. A major challenge is to determine which children manage to thrive under these circumstances and which initial reading instruction in the home language is of particular importance. One clue in answering this question comes from accounts sug- gesting that English speakers in French immersion programs in Canada acquire literacy in French first with little difficulty, subsequently transferring their literacy skills successfully to English (cited in August and Hakuta, 1997). French immersion is a magnet program in Canada, generally selected by middle-class, academically motivated families for their children. It may be that for children in families with many academic and literacy resources, initial instruction in literacy in a second language is unproblematic. Even Canadian children in French im- mersion programs, however, may perform better on literacy tasks administered in their first, stronger language (Carey and Cummins, 1983) after as many as 10 years of consistent instruction in the second language. Better performance in the first language is equivalent, of course, to worse than expected performance in the second (although it is not obvious for Canadians because native English speakers tested in French are never directly compared with native French speakers tested in French). One large study of test scores from initially non-English-speaking children in a school district that had adopted an English-only education policy found that bilingual children caught up with monolingual English-speaking peers in all areas tested within a couple of years after arrival, on average, unless those children had entered U. Similar findings for Finnish speakers in Sweden have been reported by Skutnabb-Kangas and Toukomaa (1979). These results, again, are limited in that they are retrospective and somewhat speculative, but at the very least they show as perhaps questionable the widespread assumptions that earlier exposure and more exposure to the second language are advantageous. While methodologically rigorous evaluations of bilingual education programs are rare (see August and Hakuto, 1997, Chapter 2), and most such evaluations are too small or too flawed to be at all helpful, the most careful metanalysis of studies comparing bilingual to English-only educational programs for language-minority children, carried out by Willig (1985), shows better literacy outcomes in English for children who received transitional bilingual education.
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Epidemiological and diagnostic aspects of the outbreak of pneumonic plague in Madagascar medicine ball workouts buy mildronate 500 mg without a prescription. International meeting on preventing and controlling plague: the old calamity still has a future medications like zoloft mildronate 250mg with mastercard. Fatal laboratory-acquired infection with an attenuated Yersinia pestis strain - Chicago medications metabolized by cyp2d6 purchase mildronate with visa, Illinois medicine xarelto mildronate 500mg with visa, 2009. Laboratory-acquired pneumonic plague: report of a case and review of previous cases. Contribution of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in an oral Yersinia enterocolitica mouse infection model. Resistance to lipopolysaccharide mediated by the Yersinia pestis V antigenpolyhistidine fusion peptide: amplification of interleukin-10. Three Yersinia pestis adhesins facilitate Yop delivery to eukaryotic cells and contribute to plague virulence. Pathology of experimental pneumonic plague produced by fraction 1-positive and fraction 1-negative Yersinia pestis in African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Growth of Pasteurella pestis and the production of the envelope and other soluble antigens in a casein hydrolyzate mineral glucose medium. Biogenesis of the fraction 1 capsule and analysis of the ultrastructure of Yersinia pestis. Protection of mice from fatal bubonic and pneumonic plague by passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies against the F1 protein of Yersinia pestis. Studies on the contribution of the F1 capsule-associated plasmid pFra to the virulence of Yersinia pestis. An unusual strain of Pasteurella pestis isolated from a fatal human case of plague. Immune response to Yersinia outer proteins and other Yersinia pestis antigens after experimental plague infection in mice. The dependence of the Yersinia pestis capsule on pathogenesis is influenced by the mouse background. Immunohistochemical detection of Yersinia pestis in formalin-fixed, paraffinembedded tissue. Role of the pleiotropic effects of plasminogen deficiency in infection experiments with plasminogen-deficient mice. Studies on the role of plasminogen activator in systemic infection by virulent Yersinia pestis strain C092. The psa locus is responsible for thermoinducible binding of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to cultured cells. The pH 6 antigen is an antiphagocytic factor produced by Yersinia pestis independent of Yersinia outer proteins and capsule antigen. The subcutaneous inoculation of pH 6 antigen mutants of Yersinia pestis does not affect virulence and immune response in mice. Manganese transporters Yfe and MntH are Fur-regulated and important for the virulence of Yersinia pestis. Induction and function of the phage shock protein extracytoplasmic stress response in Escherichia coli. The phage shock protein PspA facilitates divalent metal transport and is required for virulence of Salmonella enterica sv. Phage-shock-protein Response is Required for Pathogenesis of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Murine Models of Infection. Characterization and membrane assembly of the TatA component of the Escherichia coli twin-arginine protein transport system. A Yersinia pestis tat mutant is attenuated in bubonic and small-aerosol pneumonic challenge models of infection but not as attenuated by intranasal challenge. The outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Yersinia pestis promotes intracellular survival and virulence in mice. Bacteriophage-resistant mutants in Yersinia pestis: identification of phage receptors and attenuation for mice. Cleavage of a bacterial autotransporter by an evolutionarily convergent autocatalytic mechanism.
Domestic or wild animals become infected when they ingest spores while grazing on contaminated land or eating contaminated feed medicine 8162 generic 500mg mildronate with visa. Pasteur originally reported that environmental conditions such as drought treatment 6th feb cardiff order mildronate from india, which may promote trauma in the oral cavity on grazing stroke treatment 60 minutes buy discount mildronate 500 mg on line, may increase the chances of acquiring anthrax medicine of the prophet cheap 250 mg mildronate with amex. In less developed countries, primarily Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, disease occurs from contact with infected domesticated animals or contaminated animal products. Contact may include handling contaminated carcasses, hides, wool, hair, and bones or ingesting contaminated meat. Cases associated with industrial exposure-rarely seen-occur in workers processing contaminated hair, wool, hides, and bones. Direct contact with contaminated material leads to cutaneous disease, and ingestion of infected meat leads to oropharyngeal or gastrointestinal forms of anthrax. It has been well documented that intravenous drug users can become infected with B anthracis, resulting in a septicemic form of anthrax. Military research facilities have played a major role in studying and defining anthrax, as well as many other zoonotic diseases in wild and domestic animals and the subsequent infections in humans. It was estimated in 1958 that between 20,000 and 100,000 cases occurred annually worldwide. Under natural conditions, inhalational anthrax is rare; before the anthrax bioterrorism event in 2001, only 18 cases had been reported in the United States in the 20th century. Five inhalational anthrax cases occurred in woolen mill workers in New Hampshire in the 1950s. The largest reported human anthrax epidemic occurred in Zimbabwe from 1978 through 1980, with an estimated 10,000 cases. Molecular analysis revealed that strains cured of this plasmid no longer produced the capsule and were attenuated, thus confirming the critical role of the capsule in virulence. In 1954 Smith and Keppie107 demonstrated a toxic factor in the serum of infected animals that was lethal when injected into other animals. The role of toxins in virulence and immunity was firmly established by many researchers in the ensuing years. In an environment of increased bicarbonate in the growth media, atmospheric carbon dioxide within the plate incubation chamber, and increased temperature, such as is found in the infected host, transcription of the genes encoding these and other virulence-associated gene products is enhanced. The B and A anthrax toxin components, which are synthesized from different genes, are secreted as noncovalently linked proteins. Each of these three toxin proteins-the B protein and both A proteins-individually is without biological activity. Crude toxin preparations have been shown to impair neutrophil chemotaxis118,119 and phagocytosis. Although these toxins were once thought to be exclusively found in B anthracis, recent cases of inhalational disease have been identified that possess the hallmarks of anthrax disease; however, the bacteria recovered were not B anthracis but did possess anthrax toxin genes. However, gene sequences encoding a polysaccharide capsule were present on a smaller plasmid. Subsequent investigations of these strains determined that the virulence of these strains in mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits was significantly attenuated when compared to fully virulent B anthracis. Phagocytosed spores can have multiple fates depending on the stage of infection and the spore burden of individual phagocytes. Banks, Ward, and Bradley164 have hypothesized that intoxication may occur after spores have been engulfed by phagocytic cells. The anthrax toxin receptors have been located on the inside of the phagolysosome, and the germinating spore may secrete toxins that interact with these receptors within the phagolysosome. Once the vegetative cells emerge from the phagolysome, they replicate within the cell and finally exit through the host cell plasma membrane. The evidence reported from animal studies overwhelmingly suggests that the alveolar spaces are not permissive for significant levels of spore germination. Rather, spores begin to germinate once phagocytosed during translocation to and upon deposition within lymph nodes. Death is most likely the result of systemic inflammatory response syndrome triggered by the release of endogenous cellular contents from damaged or dying cells, termed damageassociated molecular patterns and in combination with exogenous microbial exposure or pathogen-associated molecular patterns,178 resulting in respiratory failure associated with pulmonary edema, direct cardiac tissue damage, overwhelming bacteremia, accompanied frequently with meningitis.