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Gill; the latter adding that the words were not spoken to Noah 4 medications list quality 1 mg tolterodine, as in verse 13 treatment kidney cancer buy genuine tolterodine online, for that medicine 2016 cheap tolterodine 4 mg on line, as yet medications to treat bipolar disorder 4 mg tolterodine with amex, he is not addressed: or else, from the circumstance of a certain space of time being fixed for repentance, we may suppose it to contain the first announcement made to Noah of the intended judgment, from the date of which announcement he began to warn the wicked: while, in verse 13, we find a second intimation made to him, that "the end of all flesh was come before God" - this second announcement being accompanied by the Divine command to build the ark. Keil and others rightly maintain, the existence of the Nephilim previously to , and independently of, the intercourse of the Bne-Elohim and the daughters of men; and believing this to be contrary to fact, we prefer even a harsh or unusual translation, not involving such a difficulty. It must, however, be admitted that, in other passages in which occurs, its immediate connection is, not with the words which precede, but with the sentence which follows, and of which it forms the introduction. The passage, to be rendered as it is by Drechsler and the Arabic translator, would rather, perhaps, have been written, "In those days and after them - see Josh. But without, having, as has been observed, the signification of postea, afterwards, after it was so - the addition of must alter the meaning to that of after it was so, that, or, briefly, after that, postquam. Kurtz remarks that the is manifestly elided, and that we have, in fact, the same expression as in Gen. It has, however, another signification, and is often employed to render a sentence or word emphatic, as in Judges v. With regard to Gesenius observes that, to the widelyextended use of this particle, is to be ascribed a looseness of expression in Hebrew: and Buxtorf (Thesaurus), having referred to it as a copulative, adds, "Ea tamen etiam, pro ratione et commoditate sententiae, aliter explicari solet. To us it seems that, if his rendering of be allowed, the tense of the Hebrew verb can but little affect the question. Taking these considerations into account, it may, perhaps, be thought allowable to translate, with Kurtz, "The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, even after that the Sons of God had come in to the daughters of men," &c. Maitland, referring, in a following section (17) of his book, to the connexion or identity which he had assumed of the Rephaim with the Giants, adduces in support of that view passages from a sermon of Mede on Prov xxi. For those who may not have access to these works, we add here that the passages, in which the Greek translators have taken Rephaim to mean the antediluvian giants in a state of misery in the other world, are - Job xxvi. John Richers, in his work on the Creation, Paradise, and Deluge, infers from the words in Gen. He refers especially to the evidence afforded by the remains in the Kirkdale Cave, described by Buckland, in hisReliquiae Diluvianae, and to the light thrown on the subject by anatomical investigations. We transcribe the passage in Richers for those who may care to read it:- "Verse 12. Unter dem Trotz der Sьnde, der Frechheit des Bцsen, hatte sich greuliche Unzucht und Unnatur ьber alle Kreatur ergossen, verbunden mit blutdurstiger Wьrg- und Mordgier, die zur hцchsten Hцhe gelangt war. Dies bestдtigen, wie schon angedeutet, die thierischen Reste des Diluviums hinreichend, besonders die Hyanenhцhlen, deren eine zu Kirkdale bei York W. Schon manchem sinnigen Betrachter sind die thierischen Raubhцhlen der Diluvialbildung aufgefallen, und schon manche Stimme hat sich ьber die Schiinderei, die in ihnen einst geherrscht haben muss, vernehmen lassen,* Denn selbst Spuren von Knochenfrass und Venerie will der Anatom Weber an den Gebeinen der Sьndfluththiere entdeckt haben. Deo et coelo excidisse ob concupiscentiam foeminarum:" says also that as Moses has spoken, in Gen. Hi sunt nempe angeli quos judicaturi sumus: hi sunt angeli quibus in lavacro renunciamus: haec sunt utique, per quae ab homine judicari meruerunt. Itaque illos cum hominibus commorantes dominator ille fallacissimus consuetudine ipsa paullatim ad vitia pellexit, et muliernm congressibus inquinavit. Turn in coelum ob peccata, quibus se immerserant, non recepti, ceciderunt in terram. Qui autem sunt ex his procreati, quia neque angeli, neque homines fucrunt, sed mediam quamdam 191 naturam gerentes, non sunt ad inferos recepti, sicut in coelum parentes eorum. Secundus, Angelos non missos ad hominum tutelam, nisi postquam genus humanum coepisset increscere. Tertius, praecepisse Deum bonis angelis, ne terrae contagione macularentur, ne substantiae coelestis amitterent dignitatem. Quartus diabolum paulatim pellexisse bonos angelos ad vitia, et eos mulierum congressibus inquinasse, &c Sunt omnia ista dogmata absurda, erronea, et a. Noachicв] cum jam humanum genus abundaret angeli, quibus coelum sedes erat, speciosarum forma virginum capti, illicitas cupiditates appetierunt: ac naturae suae originisque degeneres, relictis superioribus, quorum incolae erant, matrimoniis se mortalibus miscuerunt. Hi paulatim mores noxios conserentes, humanam corrupere progeniem, ex quorum coitu Gigantes editi esse dicuntur, cum diversae inter se naturae permixtio monstra gigneret. Quibus rebus offensus Deus, maximeque malitia hominum, quae ultra modum processerat, delere penitus humanum genus decreverat. In the notes on this passage some of the Rabbinical tradition appears- "Angeli delapsi e coelo viderunt filias Cain, quae illo tempore nudae incedebant, oculos stibio pingentes, more meretricum" -Pirke Eliezcr. Another note says:-" Nominatur in libro Juchasin Machasael ex filiis Dei, qui sub diluvii tempus rem habuerit cum uxore Chami, unde natus sit Sihon.

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This brings drays and horses into demand; the high rates draw these from all quarters; and medications dictionary purchase tolterodine 1mg online, after them medications prescribed for pain are termed order discount tolterodine on line, wheelwrights and harness-makers symptoms urinary tract infection purchase tolterodine overnight. Blacksmiths to sharpen pickaxes medications band purchase genuine tolterodine on-line, doctors to cure fevers, get pay exorbitant in proportion to the need for them; and are so brought flocking in proportionate numbers. Presently commodities become scarce; more must be fetched from abroad; sailors must have increased wages to prevent them from deserting and turning miners; this necessitates higher charges for freight; higher freights quickly bring more ships; and so there rapidly develops an organization for supplying goods from all parts of the world. Every phase of this evolution takes place in the order of its necessity; or, as we say, in the order of the intensity of the desires subserved. Each man does that which he finds pays best; that which pays best is that for which other men will give most; that for which they will give most is that which, under the circumstances, they most desire. Hence the succession must be throughout from the most important to the less important. Is it not true of the latter phases of social evolution, as of the earlier, that when things are let alone the smaller desiderata will be postponed to the greater? It must, on the average, result in our complex state, as in simpler ones, that the thing left undone is a thing by doing which citizens cannot gain so much as by doing other things; is therefore a thing which society does not want done so much as it wants these other things done; and the corollary is, that to effect a neglected thing by artificially employing citizens to do it, is to leave undone some more important thing which they would have been doing; is to sacrifice the greater requisite to the smaller. To select out of an immense number of minor wants, physical, intellectual, and moral, felt in different degrees by different classes, and by a total mass varying in every case, the want that is most pressing, is a task which no legislature can accomplish. No man or men by Over-Legislation (1853) 309 inspecting society can see what it most needs; society must be left to feel what it most needs. When left, day after day, to experience evils and dissatisfactions of various kinds, affecting them in various degrees, citizens gradually acquire repugnance to these proportionate to their greatness, and corresponding desires to get rid of them, which by spontaneously fostering remedial agencies are likely to end in the worst inconvenience being first removed. For those who question this, there are instances; and, that the parallel may be the more conclusive, we will take a case in which the ruling power is deemed specially fit to decide. Do those who maintain that railways would have been better laid out and constructed by government, hold that the order of importance would have been as uniformly followed as it has been by private enterprise? Under the stimulus of an enormous traffic-a traffic too great for the then existing means-the first line sprung up between Liverpool and Manchester. Next came the Grand Junction and the London and Birmingham (now merged in the London and Northwestern); afterwards the Great Western, the Southwestern, the Southeastern, the Eastern Counties, the Midland. As they were quite certain to do, companies made first the most needed, and therefore the best paying, lines; under the 310 the Man Versus the State same impulse that a laborer chooses high wages in preference to low. That government would have adopted a better order can hardly be, for the best has been followed; but that it would have adopted a worse, all the evidence we have goes to show. In default of materials for a direct parallel, we might cite from India and the colonies, cases of injudicious road-making. Or, as exemplifying State-efforts to facilitate communication, we might dwell on the fact that while our rulers have sacrificed hundreds of lives and spent untold treasure in seeking a Northwest passage, which would be useless if found, they have left the exploration of the Isthmus of Panama, and the making of railways and canals through it, to private companies. But, not to make much of this indirect evidence, we will content ourselves with the one sample of a State-made channel for commerce, which we have at home-the Caledonian Canal. It has now been open for many years, and salaried emissaries have been constantly employed to get traffic for it. The results, as given in its forty-seventh annual report, issued in 1852, are-receipts during the year, Ј7,909; expenditure ditto, Ј9,261; loss, Ј1,352. Has any such large investment been made with such a pitiful result by a private canal company? And if a government is so bad a judge of the relative importance of social requirements, when these requirements are of the same kind, how worthless a judge must it be when they are of different kinds. If, where a fair share of intelligence might be expected to lead them right, legislators and their officers go so wrong, how Over-Legislation (1853) 311 terribly will they err where no amount of intelligence would suffice them,uwhere they must decide among hosts of needs, bodily, intellectual, and moral, which admit of no direct comparisons; and how disastrous must be the results if they act out their erroneous decisions. Should any one need this bringing home to him by an illustration, let him read the following extract from the last of the series of letters some time since published in the Morning Chronicle, on the state of agriculture in France. After expressing the opinion that French farming is some century behind English farming, the writer goes on to say: There are two causes principally chargeable with this. In the first place, strange as it may seem in a country in which twothirds of the population are agriculturists, agriculture is a very unhonoured occupation.

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Yet treatment innovations purchase genuine tolterodine on line, Merzenich believes that such drugs treatment action campaign effective 4mg tolterodine, worth billions in sales medicine images order discount tolterodine line, provide only about four to six months of improvement symptoms 9 weeks pregnancy tolterodine 4 mg with visa. It is as if your skills and abilities, acquired in the brain at some young age, are just destined to deteriorate as the physical brain deteriorates. A major reason memory loss occurs as we age is that we have trouble registering new events in our nervous systems, because processing speed slows down, so that the accuracy, strength, and sharpness with which we perceive declines. This atrophy leads to our representing oral speech with "fuzzy engrams," meaning that the representation of sounds or words is not sharp because the neurons that encode these fuzzy engrams are not firing in the coordinated, quick way needed to send a powerful sharp signal. Because the neurons that represent speech pass on fuzzy signals to all the neurons downstream from them ("muddy in, muddy out") we also have trouble remembering, finding, and using words. It is similar to the problem we saw occurring in the brains of language-impaired children, who also have "noisy brains. In a person with mild cognitive impairment the acetylcholine produced in the nucleus basalis is not even measurable. And then, in our early employment, we are intensely engaged in learning and acquiring new skills and abilities. And more and more as we progress in life we are operating as users of mastered skills and abilities. We still regard ourselves as active, but we have a tendency to deceive ourselves into thinking that we are learning as we were before. We rarely engage in tasks in which we must focus our attention as closely as we did when we were younger, trying to learn a new vocabulary or master new skills. Such activities as reading the newspaper, practicing a profession of many years, and speaking our own language are mostly the replay of mastered skills, not learning. By the time we hit our seventies, we may not have systematically engaged the systems in the brain that regulate plasticity for fifty years. Because it requires intense focus, studying a new language turns on the control system for plasticity and keeps it in good shape for laying down sharp memories of all kinds. No doubt Fast ForWord is responsible for so many general improvements in thinking, in part because it stimulates the control system for plasticity to keep up its production of acetylcholine and dopamine. Anything that requites highly focused attention will help that system - learning new physical activities that require concentration, solving challenging puzzles, or making a career change that requires that you master new skills and material. That is what will allow you to both lay down new memories and have a system that can easily access and preserve the older ones. The thirty-six scientists at Posit Science are working on five areas that tend to fall apart as we age. The key in developing exercises is to give the brain the right stimuli, in the right order, with the right timing to drive plastic change. Part of the scientific challenge is to find the most efficient way to train the brain, by finding mental functions to train that apply to real life. Merzenich told me, "Everything that you can see happen in a young brain can happen in an older brain. If so, he says, "the changes can be every bit as great as the changes in a newborn. The exercises increase processing speed and make basic signals stronger, sharper, and more accurate, while stimulating the brain to produce the dopamine and acetylcholine. Adults between the ages of sixty and eighty-seven trained on the auditory memory program an hour a day, five days a week, for eight to ten weeks - a total of forty to fifty hours of exercises. Before the training, the subjects functioned on average like typical seventy-year-olds on standard memory tests. Thus, many turned back their memory clock ten or more years, and some individuals turned it back about twenty-five years. The study also compared seventy-one-year-old subjects who used the auditory memory program with those of the same age who spent the same amount of time reading newspapers, listening to audiobooks, or playing computer games. Rather, program users showed increased metabolic activity in their right parietal lobes and in a number of other brain areas, which correlated with their better performance on memory and attention tests. These studies show that brain exercises not only slow age-related cognitive decline but can lead to improved functioning. And keep in mind that these changes were seen with only forty to fifty hours of brain exercise; it may be that with more work, greater change is possible. An eighty-year-old is acting, operationally, like they are fifty or sixty years old," these exercises are now available in thirty independent-living communities and for individuals through the Posit Science Web site.

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Happiness scores were normalised 780 to vary from 0 to 1using (observed value-min value)/ (max value-min value) formula as shown in equation (i) medications janumet cheap tolterodine 1mg amex. The ordered logistic model (iv) was specified as follows: the categories of happiness were defined based on the assumption that there was a set of j indicators of happiness medicine 852 purchase tolterodine us. Happiness is dependent on the following factors: actual age treatment management system buy tolterodine overnight, sex treatment ulcerative colitis cheap tolterodine 2mg line, wealth, education and so on. It was assumed that an ordered logistic regression model is adequate to define the probability of a household being happy if j = 0 e x p[y j / x] 1 x 1 i 1 i j ij. The independent variables comprised: x1 = Age of the household head in complete years, x2 = Sex: 1 = Male and 0 = Female), x3 = Household size: (the actual number of people living in the household), x4 = (Ethnicity: 1=Maasai and 0= NonMaasai), x5 = (District: 1=Kilosa and 0= Kiteto) x6 = Education: the number of years spent in school, x7 = Normalised household asset index x8 = Condition of the household dwelling: Poor housing=1, Moderate housing = 2, Good housing = 3)]. The Maasai ethnic group was also singled out over other pastoralists groups because they are the most dominant ethnic group keeping livestock and therefore they are the leading group for being in constant conflicts with farmers in the study area. Other pastoralists and agro-pastoralist groups particularly in Kilosa include Barabaig and Sukuma (Tanga, 2008). Finally, post-traumatic stress was higher among farmers, while the fear of being attacked was almost at the same level among farmers and pastoralists as shown in Table 1. Personal security threats due resource use conflict between farmers and pastoralists Responses Rating mean score Threat to personal Farmers Pastoralists Overall Famers Pastoralists t-values P security (%) (%)n=143 (%) (p<0. This suggests that the psychological effects caused by these conflicts might even be worse than the physical injuries. This is because of high rate of fear of being attacked and post-traumatic stress reported by farmers and pastoralists. This situation is manifested through reduced morale among the respondents of engaging in farming activities for fear of being attacked, thus, affecting their well-being. Korianga is presently powerful age-group among the Maasai ethnic group vested with all the rights and privileges of protecting the society and their cattle against the enemies. The role of the militia groups was to protect their communities against attackers by providing the required security. The presence of militia groups within the crop cultivation and pastoral communities does not auger well with the personal security and well-being of the farmers and pastoralists. According to Ero (2000), as much as these militia groups were mobilized to defend their communities against violence, they also perpetuated much of the violence and armed internal conflicts, causing massive loss of life and widespread damage. The results of an independent t-test (Table 1) show that personal security threats as a result of resource use conflicts were more or less the same between farmers and pastoralists. These results suggest that farmers and pastoralists had similar opinions on the threat to personal security caused by resource use conflicts. The above finding suggests that loss of life and property due to conflicts were the most threatening security issues which are related to the well-being of farmers and pastoralists in the study area. These study findings are similar to those reported in Nigeria by Adisa (2011) who showed that manifestations of the conflicts ranged from mere disputes to violent clashes resulting in loss of livestock, crops, life and valuable property. Interestingly, post-traumatic stress, fear of being attacked as well as physical pains were not significant among the two groups. These results suggest that there were few physical confrontations between the farmers and pastoralists during the conflicts. These findings show further that the parties in conflicts continued with their production activities without having the fear of being attacked. Threats of resource use conflicts to the psychological well-being of farmers and pastoralists Table 2 shows the psychological effects of conflicts between farmers and pastoralists in the study area. An independent samples t-test result showed that losses as a result of resource use conflicts were more felt among the farmers than among the pastoralists. The results in Table 2 show that rating mean scores of the effects of conflicts with respect to the quality of life among households between pastoralists and farmers differed significantly (p < 0. The above findings suggest that both farmers and pastoralists had similar opinions on the effects of resource use conflicts. Threats of conflicts to psychological well-being of farmers and pastoralists Rating mean scores Farmer Pastoralists t-value p-values Psychological effect (p < 0. The findings are in line with those reported by Adisa (2011) showing that respondents in Nigeria agreed with the statement that, the quality of education of their children had been badly affected by the economic losses they suffered as a result of resource use conflicts between farmers and pastoralists. During the interview, one of the pastoralists in Kimana village, Kiteto said: "How shall we enjoy staying with our wives in a place where fighting has become the order of the day? Our attention is currently focused on defending our cattle; when we lose them, all these wives and children will run away from us". The above findings suggest that communities in the areas which are affected by conflicts were unaware about the effects of resource use conflicts on the education of their children.

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